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Table 5 Logistic regression model on healthcare underutilization in middle-aged and elderly adults

From: Social health insurance, healthcare utilization, and costs in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults in China

Variables/categories Odds Ratio Std. Err. Odds Ratio Std. Err. Odds Ratio Std. Err.
Health insurance; ref.: Not covered by social health insurance
 UEMI 0.593*** 0.102     
 URMI    0.892** 0.111   
 NCMI      0.757** 0.113
Female, ref.: Male 0.829 0.121 1.021 0.186 1.099 0.069
Age in years; ref.:<=50
  > 50 and <=65 0.642** 0.121 0.664* 0.142 0.800** 0.061
  > 65 0.489** 0.102 0.580** 0.150 0.696*** 0.065
Educational level; ref.: Less than lower secondary education
 Single/divorced/widowedUpper secondary & vocational training 1.013 0.183 1.532 0.376 0.892 0.127
 Single/divorced/widowedTertiary education 0.878 0.303 0.800 0.928 1.087 0.818
Marital status; ref.:
 Single/divorced/widowed       
 Married/cohabiting 0.722* 0.140 0.845 0.194 0.715*** 0.058
Health status (self-reported); ref.: Excellent
 Very good 1.119*** 0.059 1.207*** 0.095 1.129*** 0.027
 Good 1.396** 0.128 1.276** 0.120 1.212*** 0.035
 Fair 1.597* 0.089 1.411** 0.138 1.381*** 0.049
 Poor 1.131 0.315 0.636 0.222 0.715 0.097
Income level; ref.: Lowest quintile
 Second quintile 0.734*** 0.091 0.838** 0.104 1.121 0.098
 Third quintile 0.722 ** 0.121 0.841** 0.114 1.038 0.095
 Fourth quintile 0.651* 0.129 0.690*** 0.045 0.921* 0.133
 Highest quintile 0.532* 0.130 0.380** 0.124 0.899** 0.097
Live in Urban or Rural; ref.: urban 1.607** 0.107 1.600* 0.143 1.802*** 0.055
  1. Note: *** implies p-value < 0.001, ** indicates p-value < 0.01, * implies p-value < 0.05
  2. Estimates were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses