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Table 3 Healthcare utilization by type of health insurance in middle-aged and elderly adults

From: Social health insurance, healthcare utilization, and costs in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults in China

  Not covered by social health insurance UEMI URMI NCMI total Sign
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Healthcare underutilization
 Outpatient 0.4256 0.4855 0.2915 0.4548 0.4070 0.4921 0.2779 0.4480 0.2909 0.4542 **
 Inpatient 0.3321 0.4616 0.1445 0.3520 0.3091 0.4635 0.2116 0.4085 0.2099 0.4073 ***
 Dentist 0.8427 0.3643 0.7660 0.4235 0.8010 0.3994 0.8436 0.3633 0.8311 0.3746 ***
 Early dismissal from the hospital 0.4490 0.5025 0.2677 0.4434 0.3404 0.4764 0.3152 0.4648 0.3118 0.4633 **
Reason for not seeking outpatient care
 Illness is not serious 0.5750 0.4975 0.7696 0.4222 0.7339 0.4437 0.6600 0.4739 0.6746 0.4687  
 Poor 0.2125 0.4117 0.0366 0.1884 0.1048 0.3076 0.1505 0.3577 0.1365 0.3435  
 No time 0.0375 0.1912 0.0105 0.1021 0.0242 0.1543 0.0265 0.1606 0.0249 0.1560  
 Hospital quality poor 0.0375 0.1912 0.0419 0.2009 0.0484 0.2155 0.0579 0.2336 0.0542 0.2266  
 Other 0.1375 0.3465 0.1414 0.3493 0.0887 0.2855 0.1050 0.3067 0.1097 0.3126  
Reason for not seeking inpatient care
 Poor 0.6667 0.4787 0.3273 0.4714 0.5606 0.5001 0.6120 0.4876 0.5764 0.4944  
 Not willing to go to hospital 0.2121 0.4151 0.3364 0.4746 0.2273 0.4223 0.2283 0.4200 0.2405 0.4276  
 Hospital quality poor 0.0000 0.0000 0.0818 0.2753 0.0606 0.2404 0.0336 0.1804 0.0401 0.1963  
 Other 0.1212 0.3314 0.2545 0.4376 0.1515 0.3613 0.1261 0.3321 0.1430 0.3503  
Reason for early dismissal from the hospital
 Can’t recover from illness 0.1053 0.3153 0.1899 0.3947 0.0714 0.2623 0.1561 0.3634 0.1549 0.3622  
 Poor 0.5789 0.5073 0.3038 0.4628 0.5000 0.5092 0.5294 0.4997 0.4982 0.5004  
 Hospital quality poor 0.0000 0.0000 0.0759 0.2666 0.0000 0.0000 0.0566 0.2313 0.0546 0.2274  
 Other 0.3158 0.4776 0.4304 0.4983 0.4286 0.5040 0.2579 0.4380 0.2923 0.4552  
Healthcare utilization
 The number of outpatient visits 1.75 2.01 2.32 3.39 1.93 2.04 2.11 2.64 2.02 2.42 ***
 The number of hospitalizations 1.37 0.82 1.59 1.58 1.78 2.22 1.51 1.13 1.53 1.27 *
 The number of dental visits 2.57 2.20 2.36 2.53 2.36 1.91 2.68 3.94 2.60 3.55 **
 Length of hospital stay 12.49 13.58 13.92 13.86 13.32 23.35 12.05 13.50 12.42 14.19 ***
  1. Not covered by social health insurance includes the middle-aged and elderly population who did not enroll in any social health insurance (including UEMI, URMI, or NCMI) but possibly has commercial health insurance. Calculations were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses
  2. Note: *** implies p-value < 0.001, ** indicates p-value < 0.01, * implies p-value < 0.05