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Table 2 Description of dependent and predicting variables

From: Social health insurance, healthcare utilization, and costs in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults in China

  Categories Indicators/survey questions
Dependent variable   
Healthcare underutilization
 Outpatient Reported non-use of outpatient/no reported non-use of outpatient Questions: Have you been ill in the last month? What the main reason for not seeking medical treatment?
 Inpatient Reported non-use of inpatient/no reported non-use of inpatient Question: In the past year, did a doctor suggest that you needed inpatient care but you did not get hospitalized?
 Dentist No seen the dentist/ seen the dentist Question: Have you seen a dentist for dental care in the last year?
 Early dismissal from the hospital Reported dismissal from the hospital/ No reported dismissal from the hospital Question: Why did you want to leave the hospital before you were recovered?
Reason for health underutilization
 Reason for not seeking outpatient Illness is not serious/No time/ Hospital quality poor/ other Question: What’s the main reason for not seeking medical treatment?
 Reason for not seeking inpatient Poor/Not willing to go to hospital/ Hospital quality poor/other Question: What’s the main reason for not seeking hospitalization?
 Reason for early dismissal from the hospital Can’t recover from illness/ Poor/ Hospital quality poor/ other Question: Why did you want to leave the hospital before you were recovered?
Healthcare utilization
 The number of outpatient visits   Questions: Which types of medical facilities have you visited in the last month for outpatient treatment? How many times did you visit these types of medical facilities during the last month?
 The number of hospitalizations   Question: How many times have you received inpatient care during the last year?
 The number of dentist visits   Question: How many times have you received dental care during the last year?
 Length of hospital stay   Question: How many nights were you hospitalized?
Healthcare costs
 Total medication costs   Question: What is the approximate total cost of treat yourself during the last month? (Consumed medicine, health supplement, health care equipment etc.)
 OOP medication costs   Question: How much did you pay out-of-pocket?
 Total outpatient costs   Question: How much did all the outpatient visit cost during the last month?
 OOP outpatient costs   Question: How much did you pay out of pocket, after reimbursement from insurance?
 Total inpatient costs   Question: What was the total medical cost of hospitalization?(Only include the fees paid to the hospital)
 OOP inpatient costs   Question: How much did you pay out of pocket for the hospitalization, after reimbursement from insurance?
 Total dentist costs   Question: What was the total medical cost for all the dental care in the last year?
 OOP dentist costs   Question: How much did you pay out of pocket, after reimbursement from insurance?
Independent variables
 Health insurance 0 No insurance/1 UEMI/2 URMI/3 NCMI/4 Other Question: Are you the policy holder/primary beneficiary of any of the types of health insurance?
 Sex Male/Female  
 Age in years ≤55/56–65/> 65  
 Educational level Less than lower secondary/upper secondary & vocational training/tertiary Question: What’s the highest level of education in last wave?
 Marital status Not-married/Married Question: What is your marital status?
 Health self-reported Excellent/Very good/Good/Fair/Poor Question: Would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?
 Income level ≤1920¥/1920–10,100¥/10,100–276,223¥/≥27,622–53,520¥/> 53,520¥ Yearly household income divided by number of household numbers; 1st household-member with a weight of 1, all following household members with a weight of 0.5
 Live in Urban or Rural Urban/rural