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Table 9 Effect of P4P on service utilisation by subgroups –using district-level clustering of Standard Errors

From: Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania

  Institutional deliveries Uptake of IPT2
Subgrouping variables Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value) Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value)
  N Beta N Beta
Marital status       
 Married 3869 7.7 (p = 0.580) 3253 10.2a (p = 0.960)
 Unmarried 1878 9.1   1504 9.1  
Maternal age       
 Younger below the median age 2914 8.5 (p = 0.565) 2336 9.6b (p = 0.790)
 Older above the median age 2833 7.2b   2421 9.8  
Education       
 Some education 4611 8.9c (p = 0.400) 3877 9.3a (p = 0.800)
 No education/illiterate 1136 5.9   880 16.5  
Occupation       
 Farmer 2950 11.5c (p = 0.140) 2434 16.0a (p = 0.060)
 Non-farmer 2797 5.6   2323 5.6  
Religion       
 Muslim 4376 9.7a (p = 0.600) 3623 10.5b (p = 0.440)
 Non-Muslim 1371 3.9   1134 6.0  
Parity/births       
 One birth 1886 9.7b (p = 0.455) 1510 9.3a (p = 0.895)
 Two or more births 3861 7.6c   3247 10.3  
Household size by members       
 Small size (< 5) 2996 5.1 (p = 0.045) 2476 7.7c (p = 0.925)
 Large size (≥5) 2751 10.4c   2281 9.9a  
Health insurance       
 Insured 475 −7.6 (p = 0.225) 429 20.1a (p = 0.965)
 Uninsured 5272 9.7b   4328 10.4a  
Household wealth status       
 Tercile 1 (poorest) 1940 11.4 (p = 0.400) 1559 14.5a (p = 0.120)
 Tercile 2 (middle) 1916 10.2c (p = 0.125) 1576 16.2a (p = 0.050)
 Tercile 3 (least poor) 1891 3.7 Reference 1622 2.6 Reference
Place of residence       
 Rural district 4694 9.9c (p = 0.080) 3851 11.4b (p = 0.430)
 Urban district 1053 0.9   906 3.3