Subgrouping variables

Institutional deliveries

Uptake of IPT2


Average subgroup effect

Differential effect test (pvalue)

Average subgroup effect

Differential effect test (pvalue)


N

Beta

N

Beta


Education subgroups
      
No education

1136

5.9

Reference

880

17.0^{b}

Reference

Some primary

459

4.1

(p = 0.550)

355

9.1

(p = 0.479)

Primary/some secondary

3729

11.3^{a}

(p = 0.157)

3148

12.1^{a}

(p = 0.965)

Secondary/above

423

3.8

(p = 0.276)

374

−9.8

(p = 0.144)

Occupation subgroups
      
Formal sector

113

−17.4

(p = 0.715)

99

−5.1

(p = 0.329)

Farmers

2950

11.6^{a}

(p = 0.162)

2434

15.9^{a}

(p = 0.777)

Selfemployed

1167

7.7^{b}

(p = 0.650)

996

1.1

(p = 0.132)

Unemployed

1517

3.9

Reference

1228

16.8^{a}

Reference

Birth parity subgroups
      
Parity 1

1886

9.8^{a}

Reference

1510

9.3^{c}

Reference

Parity 2

1353

3.4

(p = 0.215)

1123

7.0

(p = 0.583)

Parity 3

1029

10.9^{b}

(p = 0.766)

868

0.4

(p = 0.317)

Parity 4

664

3.3

(p = 0.342)

570

3.2

(p = 0.567)

Parity 5+

815

13.3^{c}

(p = 0.700)

686

30.0^{a}

(p = 0.038)

Age subgroups
      
Age (15–19) years

965

11.5^{a}

Reference

726

19.2^{b}

Reference

Age (20–24) years

1613

9.7^{a}

(p = 0.366)

1322

4.2

(p = 0.708)

Age (25–29) years

1459

4.2

(p = 0.568)

1232

7.3

(p = 0.820)

Age (30–34) years

978

4.9

(p = 0.510)

846

10.3

(p = 0.666)

Age (35+) years

732

15.5^{a}

(p = 0.446)

631

20.4^{b}

(p = 0.218)

 ^{a}denotes significance at 1%, ^{b}at 5%, and ^{c}at 10% level; Beta is the estimated P4P effect on a specific subgroup in percentage point after controlling for a year dummy, facilityfixed effects, and individual and householdlevel covariates (age, education, occupation, religion, marital status, parity, health insurance status, household size, and household wealth status); Each cell for Beta and differential effect reports the result from a separate regression; Differential effect test is a ttest of the null that the coefficient on the threeway interaction between the P4P effect and subgrouping indicator is zero