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Table 7 Effect of P4P on service utilisation by subgroups for categorical variables

From: Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania

Subgrouping variables Institutional deliveries Uptake of IPT2
Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value) Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value)
N Beta N Beta
Education subgroups       
 No education 1136 5.9 Reference 880 17.0b Reference
 Some primary 459 4.1 (p = 0.550) 355 9.1 (p = 0.479)
 Primary/some secondary 3729 11.3a (p = 0.157) 3148 12.1a (p = 0.965)
 Secondary/above 423 3.8 (p = 0.276) 374 −9.8 (p = 0.144)
Occupation subgroups       
 Formal sector 113 −17.4 (p = 0.715) 99 −5.1 (p = 0.329)
 Farmers 2950 11.6a (p = 0.162) 2434 15.9a (p = 0.777)
 Self-employed 1167 7.7b (p = 0.650) 996 1.1 (p = 0.132)
 Unemployed 1517 3.9 Reference 1228 16.8a Reference
Birth parity subgroups       
 Parity 1 1886 9.8a Reference 1510 9.3c Reference
 Parity 2 1353 3.4 (p = 0.215) 1123 7.0 (p = 0.583)
 Parity 3 1029 10.9b (p = 0.766) 868 0.4 (p = 0.317)
 Parity 4 664 3.3 (p = 0.342) 570 3.2 (p = 0.567)
 Parity 5+ 815 13.3c (p = 0.700) 686 30.0a (p = 0.038)
Age subgroups       
 Age (15–19) years 965 11.5a Reference 726 19.2b Reference
 Age (20–24) years 1613 9.7a (p = 0.366) 1322 4.2 (p = 0.708)
 Age (25–29) years 1459 4.2 (p = 0.568) 1232 7.3 (p = 0.820)
 Age (30–34) years 978 4.9 (p = 0.510) 846 10.3 (p = 0.666)
 Age (35+) years 732 15.5a (p = 0.446) 631 20.4b (p = 0.218)
  1. adenotes significance at 1%, bat 5%, and cat 10% level; Beta is the estimated P4P effect on a specific subgroup in percentage point after controlling for a year dummy, facility-fixed effects, and individual and household-level covariates (age, education, occupation, religion, marital status, parity, health insurance status, household size, and household wealth status); Each cell for Beta and differential effect reports the result from a separate regression; Differential effect test is a t-test of the null that the coefficient on the three-way interaction between the P4P effect and subgrouping indicator is zero