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Table 6 Effect of P4P on service utilisation by different categories of wealth status and by arm-based wealth subgroups

From: Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania

Wealth subgrouping variables Institutional deliveries Uptake of IPT2
Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value) Average subgroup effect Differential effect test (p-value)
N Beta N Beta
Panel A: Wealth subgroups
 Three wealth subgroups (Terciles)       
  T1 1940 11.4b (p = 0.232) 1559 14.5b (p = 0.158)
  T2 1916 10.2a (p = 0.094)c 1576 16.2a (p = 0.149)
  T3 1891 3.7 Reference 1622 2.6 Reference
 Five wealth subgroups (Quintiles)       
  Q1 1170 13.8b (p = 0.079)c 929 13.6c (p = 0.166)
  Q2 1158 8.8c (p = 0.069)c 939 16.3b (p = 0.102)
  Q3 1143 8.2c (p = 0.034)b 938 21.8a (p = 0.120)
  Q4 1146 11.4a (p = 0.015)b 979 14.4b (p = 0.175)
  Q5 1130 −0.5 Reference 972 1.9 Reference
Panel B: Arm-based wealth subgroups
 Three wealth subgroups (Terciles)       
  AT1 1917 10.2b (p = 0.293) 1540 13.8b (p = 0.117)
  AT2 1913 9.2b (p = 0.156) 1568 18.3a (p = 0.084)c
  AT3 1917 3.9c Reference 1649 2.5 Reference
 Five wealth subgroups (Quintiles)       
  AQ1 1149 15.3a (p = 0.089)c 914 16.8b (p = 0.108)
  AQ2 1151 6.6 (p = 0.230) 935 15.2b (p = 0.139)
  AQ3 1147 12.3b (p = 0.001)a 949 14.6b (p = 0.156)
  AQ4 1152 9.9b (p = 0.022)b 972 7.7 (p = 0.310)
  AQ5 1148 0.3 Reference 987 0.5 Reference
  1. adenotes significance at 1%, bat 5%, and cat 10% level; Beta is the estimated P4P effect on a specific subgroup in percentage point after controlling for a year dummy, facility-fixed effects, and individual and household-level covariates (age, education, occupation, religion, marital status, parity, health insurance status, household size, and household wealth status); Each cell for Beta and differential effect reports the result from a separate regression; Differential effect test is a t-test of the null that the coefficient on the three-way interaction between the P4P effect and subgrouping indicator is zero