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Table 3 Prenatal care utilization and obstetric outcomes

From: Socioeconomic status can affect pregnancy outcomes and complications, even with a universal healthcare system

Variables No. (%) of women
NHI (n = 457,336) MA (n = 4244) Total P value
Prenatal care utilization
Frequency of prenatal care utilization 9.4 ± 4.44 7.3 ± 4.69 9.4 ± 4.44 <0.001
Adequacy of prenatal care utilization     <0.001
 Adequate (≥ 9) 198,623 (54.8) 1113 (37.5) 199,736 (54.6)  
 Intermediate (5–8) 122,609 (33.8) 982 (33.1) 123,591 (33.8)  
 Inadequate (≤ 4) 41,379 (11.4) 873 (29.4) 42,252 (11.6)  
Obstetric outcome     P value
Termination of pregnancy*     <0.001
 Abortion 94,725 (20.7) 1276 (30.1) 96,001 (20.8)  
 Delivery 362,611 (79.3) 2968 (69.9) 365,579 (79.2)  
Result of childbirth*     0.025
 Live birth 361,967 (99.8) 2957 (99.6) 364,924 (99.8)  
 Stillbirth 644 (0.2) 11 (0.4) 655 (0.2)  
 Subtotal 362,611 (99.2) 2968 (0.8) 365,579 (100)  
Type of delivery*     <0.001
 Cesarean section 143,558 (39.6) 1360 (45.8) 144,918 (39.6)  
 Vaginal delivery 219,053 (60.4) 1608 (54.2) 220,661 (60.4)  
 Subtotal 362,611 (99.2) 2968 (0.8) 365,579 (100)  
  1. No number, NHI National Health Insurance, MA Medical Aid, SD Standard Deviation
  2. *P < 0.05 calculated by chi-square test or t-test