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Table 4 Exact Means of HAZ and WAZ and prevalence of stunted, underweight and immunised children

From: Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010

   Mean HAZ (±SD)    Mean WAZ (±SD)   
2000 2005 2010 2000 2005 2010
Sex Male −1.18 (1.50) −0.55 (2.80)*** −0.74 (1.38)** −0.65 (1.36) −0.23 (1.30) *** −0.11 (1.21)**
Female −1.06 (1.55) −0.41 (2.91)*** −0.69 (1.40)*** −0.54 (1.36) −0.19 (1.36) *** −0.07 (1.24)**
Age 0-11 months −0.55 (1.64) 0.17 (2.84) *** −0.07 (1.42)* −0.13 (1.48) 0.47 (1.37) *** 0.58 (1.30)
12-23 months −1.43 (1.61) −0.98 (2.47) *** −1.00 (1.37) −0.74 (1.40) −0.31 (1.30) *** −0.27 (1.27)
24-35 months −1.14 (1.41) −0.51 (2.82) *** −0.78 (1.34)* −0.69 (1.29) −0.36 (1.21) *** −0.23(1.12)*
36-47 months −1.29 (1.34) −0.57 (3.00) *** −0.87 (1.32)* −0.71 (1.25) −0.51 (1.18) ** −0.28 (1.08)***
48-59 months −1.20 (1.39) −0.59 (2.02) *** −0.90 (1.26)* −0.79 (1.21) −0.46 (1.31) *** −0.32(1.02)*
Number of children under age 5 in the home 1 −0.93 (1.46) −0.41 (2.81) *** −0.63 (1.33)** −0.46 (1.34) −0.16 (1.32) *** −0.04(1.24)**
2 −1.32 (1.57) −0.66 (2.83) *** −0.86 (1.47)* −0.73 (1.37) −0.33 (1.33) *** −0.17 (1.19)**
3 −1.61 (1.53) −0.56 (3.75) ** −0.97 (1.59) −1.01 (1.40) −0.50 (1.33) ** −0.40 (1.22)
4 0.14 (1.66) n/a −3.91 (1.41) −0.19 (0.69) n/a −1.41 (0.91)
Maternal Education level None −1.59 (1.41) −0.93 (2.84) * −1.27 (1.22) −1.10 (1.35) −0.55 (1.29) ** −0.51 (1.19)
Primary −1.42 (1.50) −0.74 (2.64) *** −1.04 (1.44) −0.81 (1.38) −0.46 (1.21) *** −0.39 (1.15)
Secondary −1.04 (1.49) −0.63 (2.76) *** −0.80 (1.38)* −0.52 (1.35) −0.31 (1.33) *** −0.13 (1.22)***
Vocational −1.13 (1.46) −0.40 (2.75) *** −0.65 (1.29) −0.69 (1.30) −0.10 (1.38) *** −0.07 (1.19)
University −0.78 (1.57) −0.04 (3.08) *** −0.40 (1.37)*** −0.32 (1.32) 0.09 (1.29) *** −0.13 (1.23)
Household economic status Poorest −1.45 (1.46) −0.81 (2.61) *** −1.04 (1.33)** −0.82 (1.38) −0.49 (1.21) *** −0.33 (1.16)**
Second −1.35 (1.52) −0.83 (2.68) *** −0.84 (1.47) −0.74 (1.38) −0.40 (1.25) *** −0.15 (1.24)***
Middle −1.17 (1.51) −0.41 (2.92) *** −0.65 (1.27)* −0.67 (1.28) −0.21 (1.33) *** −0.03(1.23)*
Fourth −0.95 (1.52) −0.12 (3.05) *** −0.51 (1.43)** −0.47 (1.38) 0.04 (1.44) *** −0.05 (1.23)
Richest −0.55 (1.46) −0.02 (3.01) *** −0.11 (1.28) −0.17 (1.44) 0.17 (1.35) *** −0.31 (1.20)
Water source Poor −1.41 (1.48) −0.60 (2.75) *** −0.85 (1.38)** −0.82 (1.37) −0.35 (1.23) *** −0.17(1.21)***
Improved −0.92 (1.52) −0.43 (2.90) *** −0.64 (1.39)** −0.44 (1.36) −0.15 (1.37) *** −0.04 (1.23)**
Sanitation facility Poor −1.25 (1.51) −0.75 (2.57) *** −1.01 (1.32)** −0.69 (1.37) −0.44 (1.25) *** −0.30 (1.14)*
Improved −0.57 (1.44) −0.38 (2.94) * −0.62 (1.40)*** −0.19 (1.27) −0.13 (1.35) −0.02 (1.24)**
Place of Residence Urban −0.82 (1.53) −0.30 (3.00) *** −0.51 (1.40)** −0.40 (1.31) −0.05 (1.42) *** 0.08 (1.28)**
Rural −1.35 (1.49) −0.69 (2.67) *** −0.88 (1.36)** −0.74 (1.38) −0.39 (1.20) *** −0.23 (1.16)***
Region of Residence Ulaanbaatar −0.66 (1.51) 0.04 (3.45) *** −0.38 (1.46)*** −0.29 (1.26) 0.14 (1.55) *** 0.22 (1.39)
West −1.40 (1.43) −0.58 (3.07) *** −1.08 (1.24)*** −0.75 (1.34) −0.49 (1.16) *** −0.33 (1.16)**
Khangai −1.39 (1.53) −0.82 (2.08) *** −0.80 (1.44) −0.77 (1.38) −0.45 (1.17) *** −0.14 (1.18)***
Central −0.99 (1.52) −0.66 (2.01) *** −0.52 (1.37) −0.41 (1.40) −0.13 (1.21) *** −0.05 (1.22)
East −1.26 (1.51) −0.74 (3.10) ** −0.68 (1.14) −0.99 (1.32) −0.27 (1.26) −0.07 (1.14)*
Total   −1.12 (1.53) −0.48 (2.85)*** −0.72 (1.39)*** −0.59 (1.36) −0.21(1.33)*** −0.09 (1.23)***
   Stunting Prevalence Underweight Prevalence Full immunisation Prevalence
2000 2005 2010 2000 2005 2010 2000 2005 2010
Sex Male 26.5 20.9 13.6 13.6 6.0 4.2 72.1 76.2 97.5
Female 24.4 20.1 13.0 13.0 6.4 3.9 71.1 73.6 98.1
Age 0-11 months 16.6 11.1 5.2 9.1 2.8 2.3 33.4 82.6 97.9
12-23 months 34.3 27.0 20.4 15.8 6.4 5.9 82.5 80.5 98.8
24-35 months 23.0 19.2 13.4 14.1 9.0 4.5 83.5 74.6 98.1
36-47 months 26.7 23.5 13.6 13.9 6.7 3.8 83.7 71.3 97.2
48-59 months 28.0 22.7 13.5 14.3 6.5 3.5 82.3 63.9 94.9
Number of children under age 5 in the home 1 20.6 18.6 11.7 10.5 5.9 3.5 72.8 76.6 97.7
2 30.8 24.1 15.9 16.4 6.9 4.9 70.2 70.7 98.1
3 38.0 32.7 20.0 20.3 8.2 6.9 70.2 72.7 99.0
4 0.0 n/a n/a 100.0 n/a n/a 75.0 n/a n/a
Maternal Education level None 38.7 32.1 24.6 19.4 13.0 9.8 63.9 73.5 97.9
Primary 32.8 24.4 18.7 17.6 8.4 6.9 69.9 70.6 97.5
Secondary 24.5 22.6 14.9 11.8 7.1 4.2 67.6 75.4 97.5
Vocational 23.2 15.9 8.5 14.8 3.6 2.8 73.9 74.2 99.2
University 16.8 14.1 8.3 8.3 3.2 2.1 79.3 75.8 98.1
Household economic status Poorest 33.0 25.2 19.8 18.0 8.2 6.3 70.2 72.1 97.1
Second 30.2 25.2 14.7 16.1 8.3 4.3 69.9 74.5 97.6
Middle 27.2 19.8 10.2 12.7 5.2 3.4 70.5 77.1 97.9
Fourth 21.8 15.0 9.8 11.8 4.3 2.3 73.1 77.5 98.5
Richest 12.2 13.9 4.7 6.2 3.5 1.4 75.1 77.6 98.9
Water source Poor 32.4 21.0 15.9 17.9 6.8 5.0 68.6 71.4 98.0
Improved 20.8 20.2 11.9 10.2 5.9 3.6 73.7 76.6 97.7
Sanitation facility Poor 28.7 24.1 19.0 15.0 6.4 5.9 70.8 70.6 97.1
Improved 12.3 19.2 11.4 9.1 5.1 3.4 74.9 76.5 98.1
Place of Residence Urban 18.9 18.4 10.4 9.5 5.4 2.8 72.6 73.4 98.2
Rural 30.5 22.8 15.6 16.2 7.1 5.0 70.9 76.5 97.5
Region of Residence Ulaanbaatar 15.3 18.3 9.6 7.3 5.0 2.8 80.2 72.0 99.0
West 29.9 25.7 19.0 15.4 7.5 5.9 75.0 64.8 98.0
Khangai 32.9 19.0 13.5 16.7 7.5 4.6 69.1 74.3 95.8
Central 22.7 15.9 10.8 10.5 4.9 3.3 69.5 87.7 97.8
East 28.2 27.8 11.9 21.4 6.3 3.0 54.4 81.7 98.7
Total   25.5 20.5 13.3 13.3 6.2 4.1 71.6 74.9 97.8
  1. This table gives both the mean values for HAZ and WAZ and the prevalence (by percentage) of stunted, underweight and immunised children over the years by each health indicator used to measure equality. Statistical significance of change 2000 to 2005 (2005 values) or 2005 to 2010 (2010 values): *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001