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Table 3 Generalized linear model: Incremental healthcare expenditures by HIV status among US individuals accounting for relevant covariates (adjusted to 2014 dollars)

From: Trends in healthcare expenditure among people living with HIV/AIDS in the United States: evidence from 10 Years of nationally representative data

Variables Incremental Cost 95% CI P-value
Primary Independent Variable    
 HIV (vs. no HIV) 31,147** 23,645 – 38,648 <0.001
Covariates    
 Female (vs. Male) 1,419** 1,181 – 1,657 <0.001
 Other race (vs. non-Hispanic White) -866** -1,115 – -617 <0.001
 Non-married (vs. Married) -380** -573 – -187 <0.001
 Age (in years) 63** 55–71 <0.001
 High school or more (vs. <High School) 619** 360 – 879 <0.001
 Uninsured (vs. Insured) -3,642** -3,809 – -3,475 <0.001
 Urban (vs. Rural) 308* 58 – 557 0.015
 Other regions (vs. South) 377** 158 – 595 0.001
 Low income or more (vs. Poor income) -1,221** -1,601 – -841 <0.001
 Diabetes (vs. no Diabetes) 2,971** 2,640–3,301 <0.001
 Hypertension (vs. no Hypertension) 1,249** 1,052 – 1,446 <0.001
 CVD (vs. no CVD) 3,364** 3,043 – 3,685 <0.001
 Stroke (vs. no Stroke) 2,945** 2,462 – 3,446 <0.001
 Emphysema (vs. no Emphysema) 2,294** 1,732 – 2,855 <0.001
 Joint pain (vs. no Joint Pain) 1,032** 827 – 1,238 <0.001
 Arthritis (vs. no Arthritis) 1,577* 1,350 – 1,805 <0.001
 Asthma (vs. no Asthma) 1,405*** 974 – 1,836 <0.001
 Comorbidity (vs. no Comorbidity) 378* 35–721 0.031
 Year 2005/07 (vs. Year 2002/04) 356* 73 – 640 0.014
 Year 2008/11 (vs. Year 2002/04) 367* 87 – 647 0.010
  1. Note: ***p < 0.001; **p ≤ 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05; Primary outcome variable in this model is total health care expenditures and the incremental (marginal) effect represents the primary independent variable (HIV/AIDS) and other covariates