Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the sample and main study variables, by study groups (N = 536)

From: Anxiety and depression in older patients: the role of culture and acculturation

Characteristics Natives (NIs) (n = 87) Veteran immigrants (VIs) (n = 197) Veteran Russian immigrants (VRIs) (n = 51) Recent Russian immigrants (RRIs) (n = 197) F/χ2
Age, mean ± SD# 76.00 ± 4.91 79.81 ± 5.72 79.10 ± 6.38 77.66 ± 5.43 11.02***
NI < VI = VRI, VI = VRI > RRI
Gender (female), n (%) 29 (33.3) 80 (40.6) 30 (58.8) 115 (58.4) 22.7***
VRI = RRI > NI = VI, VRI > NI, VI
Year of immigration, mean ± SD 1945 ± 5.29 1969 ± 12.18 1994 ± 4.09 3194.07***
VI < VRI < RRI
Social support (hours), mean ± SD 5.68 ± 3.91 5.57 ± 3.57 5.29 ± 3.91 3.18 ± 2.48 21.43**
RRI < NI = VRI = VI
Cognitive status, mean ± SD 8.69 ± 1.56 8.70 ± 1.40 8.06 ± 2.08 8.96 ± 1.30 5.17**
VRI < RRI, VI, NI = VI = RRI
Functional status (^ADL), mean ± SD 91.70 ± 16.08 91.53 ± 17.06 90.71 ± 14.52 94.87 ± 9.99 2.39, p = 0.08
Severity of acute illness, mean ± SD 11.81 ± 4.37 11.67 ± 4.73 10.02 ± 3.50 10.84 ± 4.43 1.75, p = 0.15
Comorbidity (Charlson), mean ± SD 2.70 ± 2.23 2.68 ± 2.25 2.31 ± 1.91 2.28 ± 2.07 1.66, p = 0.14
Cardiovascular diagnosis, n (%) 32 (37.2) 59 (29.9) 22 (43.1) 78 (39.6) 5.42, p = 0.14
Depression symptoms, mean ± SD 51.88 ± 15.01 51.45 ± 15.08 56.12 ± 16.72 51.09 ± 14.84 1.68, p = 1.15
Anxiety symptoms, mean ± SD 18.35 ± 5.23 18 ± 5.03 21 ± 5.83 20.2 ± 5.23 7.42***
VRI = RRI > VI = NI, VRI > VI, NI
  1. ^ ADL activities of daily living, # SD standard deviation. **p < .01; ***p < .001