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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regressions of ARI between regions; regression coefficients and significance Demographic and Health Survey 2003, 2008 and 2013

From: Factors contributing to regional inequalities in acute respiratory infections symptoms among under-five children in Nigeria: a decomposition analysis

Variables 2003
aOR
(95% C.I)
2008
aOR
(95% C.I)
2013
aOR
(95% C.I)
Child’s residential characteristics
 Region
  South West 1 1 1
  North central 0.91 (0.51, 1.63) 1.22 (0.70, 2.14) 2.31 (1.25, 4.26)**
  North east 2.75 (1.58, 4.79)*** 5.91 (3.51, 9.96)*** 8.51(4.72, 15.3)***
  North west 1.27 (0.72, 2.23) 1.51 (0.87, 2.62) 1.31 (0.69, 2.48)
  South East 1.27 (0.68, 2.35) 1.63 (0.88, 3.02) 2.87 (1.52, 5.40)**
  South South 1.79 (0.99, 3.24)** 3.10 (1.83, 5.25)*** 2.20(1.17, 4.13)**
 Urban rural
  Urban 1 1 1
  Rural 1.25 (0.89-, 1.74) 0.99 (0.72, 1.36) 0.96 (0.70, 1.33)
 Cooking methods
  Kerosene/Charcoal 1 1 1
  Biomass 0.75 (0.46, 1.21) 0.83 (0.56, 1.24) 1.69(1.05, 2.71)**
  Others 0.66 (0.27, 1.58) 0.26 (0.06, 1.13) 0.92 (0 .34, 2.45)
Child Characteristics
  Child’s gender (female)
  Male 1 1 1
  Female 0.94 (0.76, 1.16) 1.06 (0.89, 1.27) 0.96 (0.80, 1.15)
 Child’s age (months)
  0–5 1 1 1
  6–11 1.37 (0.92, 2.04) 1.57 (1.08, 2.29)** 1.85 (1.25, 2.73)**
  12–23 1.15 (0.77, 1.70) 1.47 (1.03, 2.10)** 1.95 (1.36, 2.80)***
  24–35 0.93 (0.62, 1.39) 1.27 (0.88, 1.82) 1.40 (0.96, 2.04)
  36–59 0.65 (0.45, 0.95) 0.93 (0.67, 1.31) 0.70 (0.48, 1.01)
 Birth order and interval
  1st birth 1 1 1
  2 to 4 and short 1.10 (0.75, 1.64) 0.70 (0.47, 1.03) 0 .81 (0.54, 1.19)
  2 to 4 and long 0.84 (0.62, 1.14) 0.92 (0 .71, 1.20) 1.07 (0.81, 1.40)
  5 to + and short 0.70 (0.43, 1.15) 1.08 (0.76, 1.55) 1.26 (0.85, 1.85)
  5 to + and long 0.85 (0.62, 1.16) 1.03 (0.78, 1.35) 1.19 (0.90, 1.58)
 Height/Age (chronic)
  Deficit 1 1 1
  Normal 1.17 (0.92, 1.49) 0.81 (0.66, 0 .98)** 0.97 (0.79, 1.20)
  Above normal 1.15 (0.63, 2.11) 1.13 (0.76, 1.68) 0.48 (0.25, 0.91)**
 BCG
  Received 1 1 1
  No 0.95 (0.68, 1.32) 0.67 (0.51, 0 .86) ** 1.0 (0.75, 1.35)
  Don’t know 0.73 (0.21, 2.63) 0.57 (0.13, 2.51) 2.04 (0.45, 9.17)
 Child has health Card
  No card 1 1 1
  Yes (seen/no seen) 1.11 (0.79, 1.57) 0.72 (0.43–1.18) 1.26 (0.93, 1.71)
  No longer has card 1.38 (0.73, 2.59) 0.68 (0.51, 0.90)** 1.12 (0.57, 2.19)
 Maternal education
  No education 1 1 1
  Primary 1.06 (0.78, 1.43) 1.08 (0.84, 1.39) 1.24 (0.95, 1.63)
  Secondary 0.77 (0.53, 1.12) 0.95 (0.68, 1.31) 1.69 (1.25, 2.30)**
  Higher 1.07 (0.55, 2.09) 0.83 (0.42, 1.65) 1.35 (0.73, 2.49)
 Household wealth index
  Poorest 1 1 1
  Poorer 0.92 (0.66, 1.28) 1.30 (1.01, 1.68)** 1.18 (0.91, 1.55)
  Middle 1.00 (0.70, 1.43) 0.96 (0.70, 1.32) 0.91 (0.65, 1.27)
  Richer 0.84 (0.55, 1.28) 0.95 (0.64, 1.39) 0.58 (0.38, 0.88)**
  Richest 0.49 (0.27, 0.93)** 0.63 (0.36, 1.13) 0 .48 (0.27, 0.87)**
Outcome measure    
Symptoms of ARI    
  1. All odds ratios were estimated taking into account sampling weights
  2. CI confidence interval, aOR adjusted odds ratios
  3. p < 0.05**, 0.001***