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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of rural single seniors in Shandong, China, 2012

From: Gender difference in utilization willingness of institutional care among the single seniors: evidence from rural Shandong, China

Characteristics Totala
n (%)
Rural single male
n (%)
Rural single female
n (%)
χ 2/t p
Observations 505(100) 193(38.2) 312(61.8)   
Age     7.307 0.026
 60- 228(45.1) 98(50.8) 130(41.7)   
 70- 200(39.6) 62(32.1) 138(44.2)   
 80- 77(15.2) 33(17.1) 44(14.1)   
Education     82.226 0.000
 Illiteracy or semiliterate 354(70.1) 90(46.6) 264(84.6)   
 Primary school 110(21.8) 74(38.3) 36(11.5)   
 Junior school or above 41(8.1) 29(15.0) 12(3.8)   
Past occupation     11.998 0.001
 Farmer 464(91.9) 167(86.5) 297(95.2)   
 Others 41(8.1) 26(13.5) 15(4.8)   
Living arrangements     33.787 0.000
Alone 156(30.9) 70(36.3) 86(27.6)   
 With children or others 349(69.1) 123(63.7) 226(72.4)   
Number of children     13.747 0.000
 0-3 304(60.2) 136(70.5) 168(53.8)   
  > 3 201(39.8) 57(29.5) 144(46.2)   
Relationship with children     0.225 0.635
 Good 444(87.9) 168(87.0) 276(88.5)   
 Normal or bad 61(12.1) 25(13.0) 36(11.5)   
Social support 29.5 ± 6.3 28.5 ± 7.0 30.2 ± 5.8 32.880 0.328
Self-reported health status     3.179 0.075
 Good 240(47.5) 82(42.5) 158(50.6)   
 Normal or bad 265(52.5) 111(57.5) 154(49.4)   
Psychological stress 17.5 ± 7.3 17.1 ± 7.3 17.7 ± 7.2 24.587 0.699
ADLb     13.963 0.001
 I 256(50.7) 117(60.6) 139(44.6)   
 II 134(26.5) 36(18.7) 98(31.4)   
 III 115(22.8) 40(20.7) 75(24.0)   
NCDc     0.274 0.601
 Yes 360(71.3) 135(69.9) 225(72.1)   
 No 145(28.7) 58(30.1) 87(27.9)   
Incomed     4.200 0.241
 Q1 227(45.0) 83(43.0) 144(46.2)   
 Q2 129(25.5) 58(30.1) 71(22.8)   
 Q3 105(20.8) 39(20.2) 66(21.2)   
 Q4 44(8.7) 13(6.7) 31(9.9)   
Per-capita living space 40.9 ± 38.2 45.4 ± 49.6 38.1 ± 28.8 86.844 0.713
  1. aRural singles include those who are unmarried(10.5%), divorced(1.2%), widowed(86.5%), separated(1.8%)
  2. bADL means activity of daily living
  3. cNCD means non-communicable chronic diseases
  4. dQuartile 1 (Q1) is the poorest and Quartile 4 (Q4) is the richest