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Table 3 Multiple Poisson regression model for financial hardship indicators, Bangladesh, 2011

From: Inequalities in financial risk protection in Bangladesh: an assessment of universal health coverage

Variable Relative risk (95% confidence interval)
Catastrophic payment Impoverishment Borrowing or selling
Average number of children in HH 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.04 (0.9–1.19) 1.01 (0.89–1.14)
Average number of adult in HH 1.39 (1.03–1.87) 1.25 (0.92–1.69) 1.38 (1.03–1.85)
Member with chronic disease
 Yes 1.41 (0.87–2.29) 1.90 (1.08–3.36) 1.70 (0.87–3.31)
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
HH member over 65 years
 Yes 1.22 (0.79–1.90) 1.11 (0.53–2.34) 1.50 (0.81–2.79)
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
HH consumption quintile
 Quintile 1 (poorest) 4.26 (1.67–10.88) 17.34 (3.73–80.55) 4.03 (1.72–9.45)
 Quintile 2 2.84 (1.15–7.05) 5.19 (1.14–23.71) 2.23 (0.91–5.45)
 Quintile 3 2.65 (1.25–5.59) 3.11 (0.92–10.49) 1.57 (0.64–3.83)
 Quintile 4 2.28 (1.12–4.65) 2.71 (0.98–7.52) 1.39 (0.62–3.12)
 Quintile 5 (richest) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Household size 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 1.07 (0.95–1.21)
Care-seeking behavior
 Inpatient 6.67 (4.50–9.90) 7.09 (3.68–13.65) 3.95 (2.52–6.18)
 Outpatient public 0.67 (0.40–1.13) 0.99 (0.51–1.9) 0.60 (0.32–1.11)
 Outpatient private 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Outpatient public and private 1.58 (0.93–2.68) 1.35 (0.63–2.9) 1.59 (0.78–3.23)
 Self-medication/traditional healer 0.24 (0.13–0.44) 0.35 (0.17–0.69) 0.23 (0.12–0.44)
Household head education
 No education 2.46 (1.34–4.53) 1.40 (0.57–3.45) 1.60 (0.72–3.53)
 Primary 1.71 (0.92–3.17) 1.14 (0.48–2.7) 1.78 (0.83–3.82)
 Secondary 1.39 (0.81–2.39) 0.61 (0.25–1.47) 1.29 (0.62–2.66)
 Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. HH household