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Table 6 Logistic model estimation for likelihood of incurring Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) [incurred CHE = 1, 0 = otherwise]

From: Assessing the impoverishing effects, and factors associated with the incidence of catastrophic health care payments in Kenya

  Catastrophic expenditure due to healthcare OOP costs as the dependent variable Catastrophic expenditure due to healthcare and transport OOP costs as the dependent variable
Independent variables Odds Ratio (95% CI) Standard error P Value Odds Ratio (95% CI) Standard error P Value
Age of household head (reference = less than 25 years)       
25 years–34 years 1.30 (1.05–1.62) 0.15 0.02 1.20 (1.00–1.45) 0.12 0.05
35 years–44 years 1.50 (1.08–2.08) 0.25 0.02 1.44 (1.09–1.91) 0.21 0.01
45 years–54 years 1.88 (1.31–2.71) 0.35 0.00 1.60 (1.17–2.18) 0.25 0.00
over 55 years 1.72 (1.15–2.58) 0.36 0.01 1.61 (1.14–2.28) 0.29 0.00
Gender of household head (reference = female) 1.01 (0.85–1.19) 0.08 0.94 1.08 (0.94–1.25) 0.08 0.28
Employment status of household head (reference = employed) 1.75 (1.42–2.16) 0.19 0.00 1.61 (1.35–1.92) 0.15 0.00
Socio-economic status (reference = quintile 5 (richest))       
Quintile 4 1.57 (1.09–2.27) 0.29 0.02 1.56 (1.15–2.13) 0.25 0.00
Quintile 3 2.65 (1.83–3.84) 0.50 0.00 2.57 (1.87–3.53) 0.42 0.00
Quintile 2 2.79 (1.97–3.95) 0.49 0.00 3.22 (2.39–4.35) 0.49 0.00
Quintile 1 (Poorest) 5.61 (3.83–8.22) 1.09 0.00 6.81 (4.99–9.28) 1.08 0.00
Household size (1.00–1.11) 0.03 0.04 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.02 0.04
Proportion of household members with health insurance cover 1.44 (1.00–2.08) 0.27 0.05 1.25 (0.91–1.72) 0.20 0.17
Chronic disease diagnosis in the household (reference = no chronic disease) 2.24 (1.87–2.68) 0.20 0.00 2.03 (1.75–2.34) 0.15 0.00
Presence of at least one elderly(>60 years) member in the household (reference = no elderly member) 1.31 (1.02–1.68) 0.17 0.04 1.23 (1.01–1.51) 0.13 0.04
Number of healthcare facilities in the county 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.00 0.12 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.00 0.39
Per capita total health expenditure in the county 1.00 (1.00–1.02) 0.01 0.65 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.01 0.14
Region (reference = rural region) 0.89 (0.73–1.08) 0.09 0.23 0.72 (0.61–0.85) 0.06 0.00
Marginalization status of the county (reference = non marginalized) 1.38 (1.14–1.67) 0.13 0.00 1.51 (1.29–1.78) 0.13 0.00