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Table 2 Distribution of government healthcare subsidy (GHS) by income quintiles, concentration index (CI), and Kakwani index (KI)

From: Has equity in government subsidy on healthcare improved in China? Evidence from the China’s National Health Services Survey

Year Area Income quintiles Living standard Outpatient GHS Inpatient GHS Total GHS
2002 Urban (A) poorest 20% 4.93% 13.75% 11.33% 13.11%
2nd poorest 8.51% 14.58% 14.43% 14.54%
3rd 12.69% 23.26% 24.89% 23.70%
2nd richest 19.64% 24.24% 18.74% 22.78%
richest 20% 54.23% 24.17% 30.61% 25.88%
Gini/CI 0.5805b 0.1527b 0.2036a 0.1662b
(SE) (0.0092) (0.0549) (0.0732) (0.0469)
KI - −0.4278a −0.3769a −0.4143a
(SE)   (0.0559) (0.0739) (0.0480)
Dominance test     
-against 450 line   D - D - D -
-against Lorenz curve D + D + D +
Rural (B) poorest 20% 8.05% 10.76% 7.43% 9.59%
2nd poorest 12.41% 11.77% 11.03% 11.51%
3rd 16.45% 19.42% 17.35% 18.69%
2nd richest 22.11% 30.04% 17.46% 25.64%
richest 20% 40.98% 28.01% 46.74% 34.56%
Gini/CI 0.3921b 0.2664a 0.4497a 0.3305b
(SE) (0.0041) (0.0924) (0.1373) (0.0778)
KI - −0.1257a 0.0576a −0.0616a
(SE)   (0.0924) (0.1371) (0.0777)
Dominance test     
-against 450 line   D - D - D -
-against Lorenz curve none none none
2007 Urban (C) poorest 20% 7.70% 13.36% 8.77% 10.77%
2nd poorest 11.88% 20.60% 8.72% 13.89%
3rd 16.06% 14.91% 13.76% 14.26%
2nd richest 21.86% 21.83% 27.41% 24.98%
richest 20% 42.51% 29.30% 41.34% 36.10%
Gini/CI 0.4154b 0.1581a 0.4433a 0.3193b
(SE) (0.0049) (0.0513) (0.0789) (0.0513)
KI - −0.2572a 0.0280a −0.0961a
(SE)   (0.0515) (0.0790) (0.0514)
Dominance test     
-against 450 line   none D - D -
-against Lorenz curve D + none none
Rural (D) poorest 20% 9.03% 13.73% 5.36% 8.88%
2nd poorest 13.31% 16.42% 7.68% 11.36%
3rd 17.07% 18.57% 16.97% 17.65%
2nd richest 22.10% 22.40% 20.95% 21.56%
richest 20% 38.49% 28.88% 49.04% 40.55%
Gini/CI 0.3507b 0.2006a 0.5375a 0.3957b
(SE) (0.0032) (0.0506) (0.0652) (0.0449)
KI - −0.1501a 0.1868a 0.0450a
(SE)   (0.0506) (0.0650) (0.0447)
Dominance test     
-against 450 line   D - D - D -
-against Lorenz curve none D - none
Inequality difference Δ(Urban–rural) 2002 (A-B) - −0.3021 −0.4346 −0.3527
Dominance test   none none none
2007 (C-D) - −0.1071 −0.1589 −0.1411
Dominance test   none none none
Δ(2007–2002) Urban (C-A) - 0.1706 0.4049 0.3182
Dominance test   none none none
Rural (D-B) - −0.0244 0.1292 0.1065
Dominance test   none none none
  1. None indicates failure to reject the null hypothesis that curves are indistinguishable at the 5 percent significance level
  2. D+/D- indicates concentration curve dominates (is dominated by) the Lorenz curve or concentration curve in one year or area and dominates (is dominated by) the other in another year or area
  3. aSignificant at 0.05
  4. bSignificant at 0.01