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Table 5 Determinants of Catastrophic Health Spending in India, Nepal and Myanmar, 2011-13

From: Multidimensional poverty and catastrophic health spending in the mountainous regions of Myanmar, Nepal and India

  Model 1 (Combined) Model 2: India   Model 3: Nepal Model 4: Myanmar
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
Multidimensionally non-poor (R)
 Multidimensionally poor 1.54*** 1.35-1.76 1.76*** 1.17-2.04 0.93 0.70-1.23 1.80*** 1.50-2.18
Age (<31- R)
 31-45 0.76*** 0.64-0.90 0.9 0.51 0.53*** 0.35-0.81 0.81 0.65-1.01
 46-60 0.85* 0.72-1.01 1.01 0.5 0.65* 0.43-1.00 0.97 0.77-1.21
 61-98 1.09 0.89 1.33 0.74 0.84 0.53-1.35 1.19 0.90-1.57
Sex of the Head of the Household (male- R)
 Female 1.09 0.95 1.24 0.81 1.11 0.78-1.60 1.07 0.92-1.26
Marital Status of the Head of the Household (Currently married- R)
 Others 1.21** 1.03-1.43 1.43 0.56 0.96 0.63-1.45 1.36*** 1.11-1.65
Educational level of the Head of the Household (11–15 Years of schooling reference)
 Illiterate 0.83** 0.69-0.99 0.99 0.75 1.57* 0.99-2.0 0.60*** 0.47-0.77
 Less than 5 0.75*** 0.62-0.91 0.91 0.54 1.1 0.69-1.74 0.63*** 0.47-0.83
 5-7 1 0.84 1.21 0.65 1.42 0.87-2.32 0.84 0.65-1.09
 8-10 0.77 0.63 0.94 0.6 1.43 0.87-2.33 0.56*** 0.39-0.79
Residence (Urban-Reference)
 Rural 1.40*** 1.19-1.63 1.63*** 1.24-2.42 1.62 1.11-2.35 1.26** 1.03-1.55
Illness of a member of the household at least once a month (None-Reference)
 At least a member of the household was sick 2.12*** 1.88-2.39 2.39*** 1.95-2.98 1.09 0.84-1.41 2.51*** 2.09-3.00
Death of a member in the family in the year preceding the survey (None-Reference)
 Household experience death of one or more member 7.65*** 5.85-10.01 10.01*** 5.02-13.82 5.94*** 3.54-9.97 8.81*** 5.81-13.37
Sickness of a member reported as major shock (None-Reference)
 Household experienced health shock 7.44*** 6.53-8.47 8.47*** 10.62-18.91 7.32*** 5.49-9.75 5.64*** 4.73-6.72
Country (Nepal-R)
 India 2.20*** 1.89-2.57 2.57      
 Myanmar 1.65*** 1.42-1.92 1.92      
 Constant 0.04*** 0.03-0.05 0.05*** 0.02-0.07 0.04*** 0.02-0.08 0.08*** 0.06-0.11
  1. **** p <0.001 ** p < .01 * p < 0.1