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Table 4 Examine the extent to which lifestyle or psychosocial factors explained the effect of socio-economic status on good SRH

From: Determinants of and socio-economic disparities in self-rated health in China

Variables Category Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Demographic characteristics
 Gender Female 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Male 1.18*** (1.07–1.30) 1.18*** (1.07–1.29) 1.18*** (1.07–1.30)
 Age group 18–29 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  30–39 0.57*** (0.44–0.73) 0.55*** (0.43–0.71) 0.65*** (0.49–0.84)
  40–49 0.33*** (0.26–0.43) 0.32*** (0.25–0.41) 0.40*** (0.31–0.52)
  50–59 0.22*** (0.17–0.28) 0.21*** (0.16–0.27) 0.25*** (0.19–0.32)
  60–69 0.16*** (0.13–0.21) 0.16*** (0.12–0.21) 0.16*** (0.13–0.22)
  70+ 0.13*** (0.10–0.17) 0.13*** (0.10–0.17) 0.13*** (0.09–0.17)
 Marital status Divorced, separated, and widowed 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Married 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.81** (0.68–0.95)
  Single 0.86 (0.64–1.14) 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.80 (0.95–1.08)
 Residence Rural 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Urban 1.04 (0.91–1.20) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.07 (0.92–1.24)
  Suburban 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 1.13 (0.97–1.30)
 Regions West 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  East 1.44*** (1.27–1.65) 1.43*** (1.25–1.62) 1.44*** (1.27–1.63)
  Middle 1.12* (0.98–1.27) 1.12* (0.99–1.28) 1.09 (0.95–1.26)
  Northeast 1.29*** (1.11–1.51) 1.29*** (1.11–1.50) 1.15 (0.97–1.36)
Socio-economic status
 Education degree Primary or no education 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Secondary education 1.26*** (1.13–1.42) 1.25*** (1.11–1.40) 1.19 (1.06–1.35)
  College or higher 1.09 (0.91–1.32) 1.06 (0.87–1.28) 1.05 (0.86–1.28)
 Work status Not working 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Non-farm work 1.93*** (1.70–2.19) 1.96*** (1.73–2.23) 1.93*** (1.69–2.22)
  Farm work 1.53*** (1.32–1.76) 1.56*** (1.35–1.80) 1.45*** (1.25–1.70)
 Household Income (RMB/dollars) ≤¥9,999 (or ≤ $ 1,640) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  ¥10,000–49,999 (or $1,640–8,201) 1.35*** (1.15–1.58) 1.31*** (1.12–1.54) 1.20** (1.01–1.42)
  ¥50,000–99,999 (or $8,201–16,402) 1.76*** (1.46–2.11) 1.69*** (1.41–2.03) 1.46*** (1.20–1.78)
  ≥¥100,000 (or ≥ $16,402) 1.37*** (1.09–1.70) 1.31** (1.05–1.64) 1.07 (0.85–1.36)
 Self-rated social status Low (score 1–3) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Middle (score 4–5) 1.39*** (1.25–1.55) 1.38*** (1.24–1.54) 1.22*** (1.08–1.37)
  High (score 6–10) 1.42*** (1.16–1.74) 1.39*** (1.13–1.70) 1.31** (1.05–1.63)
 Socio-economic status compared with peers Lower 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Higher 2.63*** (2.04–3.39) 2.60*** (2.01–3.35) 1.90*** (1.45–2.49)
  Similar 1.70*** (1.53–1.88) 1.68*** (1.51–1.87) 1.32*** (1.17–1.48)
  Hard to say 1.22 (0.95–1.57) 1.19 (0.93–1.53) 1.13 (0.86–1.48)
Lifestyle factors
 BMI Normal weight    1.00    
  Underweight    0.66*** (0.56–0.79)   
  Over weight    0.94 (0.84–1.06)   
  Obese    0.59*** (0.44–0.80)   
 Physical activity Inactive    1.00    
  Active    1.17*** (1.04–1.31)   
Psychosocial factors
 Life satisfaction Happy life      1.00  
  Unhappy life      0.68*** (0.57–0.82)
  Average      0.75*** (0.66–0.85)
 Depression Severe depression      1.00  
  Mild depression      1.86*** (1.51–2.29)
  Less or no      7.90*** (6.51–9.59)
 Family relations Good      1.00  
  Poor      0.73*** (0.63–0.85)
  Normal      0.79*** (0.71–0.88)
Pseudo R2   0.1428   0.2101   0.2290  
  1. Model 3 controlled for demographic characteristics (except ethnicity variable, which was not correlated with SRH in univariate analysis) and socio-economic status factors
  2. Model 4 also controlled lifestyle factors in addition to the factors controlled in the baseline Model 3
  3. Model 5 also controlled for psychosocial factors in addition to the factors controlled in baseline Model 3
  4. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% Confidence Intervals
  5. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1