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Table 2 Crude rates of major cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction and stroke events and adjusted hazard ratios (HR), by education, in those with and without prior CVD

From: Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study

  No prior major CVD Prior major CVD
  Events/pya Crude ratesb Adjusted HRc (95% CI) Events/pya Crude ratesb Adjusted HRc (95% CI)
Major CVD
 45–64 years
  No qualifications 776/62450 12.43 1.62 (1.49–1.77) 644/12269 52.49 1.49 (1.34–1.65)
  Cert./diploma/trade 4663/505833 9.22 1.27 (1.20–1.35) 2630/63613 41.34 1.17 (1.08–1.27)
  University degree 1669/236864 7.05 1.00 795/22087 35.99 1.00
   p (test for trend)    < 0.0001    < 0.0001
 65–79 years
  No qualifications 1171/41,502 28.22 1.13 (1.04–1.23) 1672/19615 85.24 1.24 (1.15–1.34)
  Cert./diploma/trade 4830/178362 27.08 1.11 (1.04–1.18) 5929/72579 81.69 1.17 (1.10–1.24)
  University degree 1123/44967 24.97 1.00 1147/15962 71.86 1.00
   p (test for trend)    0.0032    < 0.0001
 ≥ 80 years
 No qualifications 744/11810 63.00 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 1338/9213 145.23 1.15 (1.06–1.26)
 Cert./diploma/trade 2300/39396 58.38 0.99 (0.90–1.10) 4400/32563 135.12 1.07 (0.99–1.15)
 University degree 483/7912 61.05 1.00 871/6666 130.67 1.00
p (test for trend)    0.0402    0.0009
Myocardial infarction
 45–64 years
  No qualifications 142/64112 2.21 2.31 (1.87–2.85) 103/13973 7.37 2.57 (1.9–3.47)
  Cert/diploma/trade 813/516122 1.58 1.68 (1.45–1.95) 351/70833 4.96 1.69 (1.31–2.17)
  University degree 227/240648 0.94 1.00 74/24280 3.05 1.00
   p (test for trend)    <.0001    <.0001
 65–79 years
 No qualifications 201/44059 4.56 1.62 (1.3–2.01) 285/23645 12.05 1.79 (1.46–2.20)
 Cert./diploma/trade 756/188974 4.00 1.44 (1.2–1.72) 824/87810 9.38 1.36 (1.14–1.63)
 University degree 138/47538 2.90 1.00 137/19134 7.16 1.00
p (test for trend)    < .0001    < .0001
 ≥ 80 years
 No qualifications 157/13017 12.06 1.37 (1.05–1.80) 274/11678 23.46 1.38 (1.13–1.68)
 Cert./diploma/trade 470/43431 10.82 1.18 (0.93–1.49) 806/40975 19.67 1.14 (0.95–1.35)
 University degree 85/8812 9.65 1.00 154/8424 18.28 1.00
p (test for trend)    0.0164    0.0010
Stroke
 45–64 years
  No qualifications 97/64333 1.51 1.48 (1.16–1.87) 78/14046 5.55 1.97 (1.42–2.74)
  Cert./diploma/trade 601/516740 1.16 1.21 (1.03–1.41) 275/70991 3.87 1.38 (1.06–1.81)
  University degree 224/240687 0.93 1.00 67/24376 2.75 1.00
   p (test for trend)    0.0009    < .0001
 65–79 years
 No qualifications 203/44046 4.61 1.08 (0.88–1.31) 290/23614 12.28 1.29 (1.07–1.55)
 Cert./diploma/trade 846/188872 4.48 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 940/87274 10.77 1.13 (0.96–1.32)
 University degree 191/47433 4.03 1.00 182/18963 9.6 1.00
p (test for trend)    0.4795    0.0067
 ≥ 80 years
 No qualifications 189/12917 14.63 1.08 (0.85–1.36) 320/11548 27.71 1.44 (1.18–1.76)
 Cert./diploma/trade 604/43098 14.01 1.02 (0.84–1.24) 991/40330 24.57 1.32 (1.11–1.57)
 University degree 120/8728 13.75 1.00 151/8347 18.09 1.00
p (test for trend)    0.4983    0.0006
  1. aEvents = incident hospital admission or death and py = person years of follow-up. bRates are per 1000 person-years. cHRs adjusted for age and sex