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Table 5 Associated factors of household catastrophic health and impoverishment of households, assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam

  Catastrophic health expenditure Impoverishment
OR (95 % CI) P- Value OR (95 % CI) P -Value
Household with at least one member who reported diagnosis of NCDs
 Yes 2.4 (1.5–3.9) <0.01 2.3 (1.1–5.0) 0.03
 No 1   1  
Location of household
 Slum areas 2.1 (1.2–3.5) <0.01 3.9 (1.7–9.5) <0.01
 Non-slum areas 1   1  
Household with female as household’s heads
 Yes 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.78 1.9 (0.9–4.1) 0.80
 No 1   1  
Household size
 1–2 people 1   1  
 3–4 people 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.28 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 0.24
  ≥ 5 people 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.31 0.8 (0.3–2.3) 0.64
Household with at least one older people ≥60 years old
 Yes 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 0.03 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.47
 No 1   1  
Household with at least one child <6 years old
 Yes 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.09 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 0.80
 No 1   1  
Household with all members owned social health insurance
 Yes 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 0.82 1.2 (0.6–2.7) 0.67
 No 1   1  
Household socioeconomic status (quintile)
 Poorest (20 %) 4.9 (2.0–12.0) <0.01 11.2 (1.4–91.4) 0.02
 Poor (20 %) 2.0 (0.7–5.2) 0.14 9.3 (1.2–77.8) 0.04
 Middle (20 %) 2.0 (0.8–5.2) 0.14 6.8 (0.8–59.1) 0.07
 Rich (20 %) 1.8 (0.7–4.8) 0.21 3.2 (0.3–33.8) 0.29
 Richest (20 %) 1   1  
  1. NCDs non-communicable diseases, OR Odds Ratio, 95 % CI: 95 % confidence interval