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Table 3 Pattern of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment of households

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam

  Overall Household with at least one member with NCDs Household without any member with NCDs P-valuea
Catastrophic health expenditure, %
 Slum areas 10.0 20.7 6.6 <0.001
 Non-slum areas 6.6 10.5 4.5 <0.01
     P-valueb 0.05 0.01 0.20  
Impoverishment, %
 Slum areas 5.1 10.3 3.5 <0.01
 Non-slum areas 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.94c
     P-valueb <0.01 <0.01 0.09  
  1. NCDs non-communicable diseases
  2. aχ2 test to compare between households with at least one member with and without NCDs
  3. bχ2 test to compare between households in slum and non-slum areas
  4. cFisher’s exact test