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Table 1 Socioeconomic characteristics of households

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam

  Slum, n (%) (N = 492) Non-slum, n (%) (N = 528) P-Value (χ2 test)
Household with members with self-reported NCDs
 Cardiovascular disease 48 (9.8) 109 (20.6) <0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 34 (6.9) 33 (6.3) 0.67
 Diabetes 45 (9.2) 79 (15.0) <0.01
 Cancer 11 (2.2) 11 (2.1) 0.87
 Any NCD (at least one member with NCDs) 116 (23.6) 191 (36.2) <0.001
Household with female as household’s heads 239 (48.6) 255 (48.3) 0.93
Household size
 1–2 people 127 (25.8) 76 (14.4) <0.001
 3–4 people 245 (49.8) 231 (43.8)
  ≥ 5 people 120 (24.4) 221 (41.9)
Household with at least one older people ≥60 years old 214 (43.5) 332 (62.9) <0.001
Household with at least one child <6 years old 129 (26.2) 172 (32.6) 0.03
Household with all members owned social health insurance 223 (45.3) 329 (62.3) <0.001
Household socioeconomic status (quintile)
 Poorest (20 %) 90 (18.3) 107 (20.3) 0.79
 Poor (20 %) 103 (20.9) 121 (22.9)
 Middle (20 %) 99 (20.1) 98 (18.6)
 Rich (20 %) 99 (20.1) 102 (19.3)
 Richest (20 %) 101 (20.5) 100 (18.9)
  1. NCDs non-communicable diseases