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Table 4 Annual changes in coverage and inequality measures in six reproductive and maternal interventions, Brazil, from 1986 to 2013

From: Coverage and equity in reproductive and maternal health interventions in Brazil: impressive progress following the implementation of the Unified Health System

Indicator Group Average annual change
Coefficient SE p-value
Use of modern contraceptives Overall 0.82 0.04 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 1.74 0.08 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) 0.25 0.06 <0.001
Inequality measures CIX −0.37 0.03 <0.001
SII −1.63 0.12 <0.001
Antenatal care 1+ visits (any provider) Overall 0.61 0.04 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 1.77 0.10 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) 0.04 0.03 0.42
Inequality measures CIX −0.41 0.03 <0.001
SII −2.19 0.13 <0.001
Antenatal care 4+ visits (any provider) Overall 0.79 0.08 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 2.06 0.19 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) 0.06 0.08 0.48
Inequality measures CIX −0.55 0.06 <0.001
SII −2.59 0.28 <0.001
1st ANC visit during the 1st trimester Overall 1.02 0.06 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 2.63 0.11 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) −0.36 0.11 <0.001
Inequality measures CIX −0.81 0.05 <0.001
SII −2.57 0.19 <0.001
Institutional delivery Overall 0.34 0.04 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 1.29 0.11 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) 0.03 0.02 0.18
Inequality measures CIX −0.31 0.03 <0.001
SII −2.38 0.18 <0.001
C-sections Overall 0.78 0.06 <0.001
Coverage Q1 (poorest) 1.28 0.08 <0.001
Q5 (wealthiest) 0.84 0.11 <0.001
Inequality measures CIX −0.73 0.09 <0.001
SII −0.46 0.19 0.06
  1. Source: Brazil DHS 1986, DHS 1996, PNDS 2006, PNS 2013
  2. SE standard error, SII slope index of inequality, CIX concentration index