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Table 1 Sample characteristics, Brazil, PNAD 2008 and PNS 2013

From: Changes in health care inequity in Brazil between 2008 and 2013

Characteristics 2008 2013
% 95 % CI % 95 % CI
Social and demographic
 Women 52.32 [52.15,52.49] 52.9 [52.10,53.69]
Age
 18–24 17.51 [17.32,17.70] 15.93** [15.32,16.55]
 25–34 23.23 [22.99,23.47] 21.63** [21.00,22.26]
 35–44 20.33 [20.12,20.54] 19.19** [18.60,19.80]
 45–54 16.87 [16.68,17.06] 17.5* [16.92,18.09]
 55–64 11.11 [10.94,11.28] 13.46** [12.94,14.00]
 65 + 10.95 [10.76,11.14] 12.29** [11.76,12.85]
Race/ethnicity
 White 49.98 [49.14,50.83] 47.46** [46.44,48.49]
 Non-white 50.02 [49.17,50.86] 52.54** [51.51,53.56]
Rural residence 15.37 [14.43,16.35] 13.79* [13.31,14.29]
Region
 North 7.35 [6.43,8.39] 7.44 [7.01,7.89]
 Northeast 26.42 [24.67,28.24] 26.62 [25.42,27.85]
 Southeast 44.14 [42.69,45.60] 43.79 [42.32,45.28]
 South 14.82 [14.29,15.36] 14.78 [13.89,15.72]
 Center 7.27 [7.00,7.55] 7.36 [6.96,7.79]
 Illiterate 10.6 [10.13,11.14] 8.48* [8.03,8.95]
Education level
 Less than primary education 45.88 [45.34,46.42] 38.93** [38.02,39.85]
 Primary complete 16.42 [16.19,16.65] 15.53* [14.95,16.12]
 Secondary complete 29.01 [28.63,29.40] 32.80** [32.05,33.57]
 College complete or more 8.69 [8.39,8.99] 12.74** [11.99,13.52]
Health Status
 Fair/poor self-rated healtha 28.7 [28.34,29.05] 32.24** [31.48,33.00]
 Activity interrupted due to health 8.93 [8.73,9.13] 8.06** [7.65,8.49]
 At least one chronic diseaseb 31.91 [31.60,32.23] 35.34** [34.60,36.08]
 Two or more chronic diseases 12.22 [12.01,12.43] 12.71 [12.20,13.23]
Health care coverage
 Enrolled in the Family Health 48.79 [47.78,50.10] 54.61** [53.18,56.03]
 Enrolled in private plan 26.16 [25.64,26.69] 26.40 [25.47,27.34]
Health care utilization
 Doctor visit 69.81 [69.44,70.18] 74.20** [73.43,74.96]
 Dentist visit 38.97 [38.53,39.43] 44.43** [43.58,45.29]
 Hospitalizationc 6.66 [6.51,6.81] 5.73** [5.39,6.08]
 Usual Source of Care 72.89 [72.19,73.58] 77.07** [76.21,77.91]
Sample size (unweighted) 271,677 60,202
  1. Note: Percentages adjusted for survey design. *p-value < 0.05 **p-value < 0.001 for change between 2008 and 2013
  2. aMeasured by a five-point Likert scale going from excellent to very poor and recoded into a dummy variable with ‶1″ representing excellent or good and ‶0″ representing fair, poor and very poor
  3. bChronic diseases included arthritis, cancer, diabetes, bronchitis/asthma, hypertension, heart disease, kidney failure, and depression
  4. cHospitalization rate excluded hospitalization due to birth of a child and adjusted for age structure using standard population from 2010