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Table 5 Impact matrix for La Herrera

From: Urban regeneration as population health intervention: a health impact assessment in the Bay of Pasaia (Spain)

Effects of non-intervention Affected social determinants of health Vulnerable groups and social inequalities in health Potential effects on health and bibliographical sources
Persistence of degraded area Deteriorating physical environment
(−) ↓ physical activity
(−) ↓ active transport
(−) ↓ social cohesion and collective self-esteem
Perception of insecurity
(−) ↓ physical activity
(−) ↓ social cohesion
(−) ↓ employment and economic activity
Negative effects on the entire population, especially women, the elderly, children, and those with low incomes (−) ↑ obesity, DM II, hypertension, and cancer
(−) ↓ musculoskeletal health
(−) ↓ perceived physical and mental health
(−) ↑ depression and anxiety
(−) ↓ sleep quality
(−) ↓ self-esteem
(−) ↑ stigma and psychosocial stress
Qualitative study
Quantitative study
Literature review:[36, 37, 41, 44, 46, 5357]
Underfunding of potential uses of the area Mixed use of land and recreational areas
(−) ↓ active transport
(−) ↓ social interaction
Negative effects on the entire population, particularly pedestrians and those with low incomes (−) ↑obesity
(−) ↓mental health and wellbeing
Qualitative study
Quantitative study
Literature review:[58, 59]
Unsafe and unequal access to metro Accessibility, public transport and connectivity
(−) ↓ physical activity
(−) ↓ access to services
(−) ↑isolation and ↓social cohesion
(−) ↑contamination, noise and accidents due to increased traffic
Negative effects on the entire population, particularly women, children, the elderly, ethnic minorities, the disabled, and those with low incomes (−) ↑ obesity and chronic diseases
(−) ↓ mental health
(−) ↑ cardiovascular disease, exacerbation of COPD and asthma, cancer, mortality
(−) ↑ irritability, stress and sleep disorders
Qualitative study
Quantitative study
Literature review:[37, 47, 48, 60]
Worsening of conflict with sponsor institutions Psychosocial sphere
(−) ↑ mistrust of institutions
(−) ↑ sense of social frustration
(−) ↓ sense of belonging to the community, collective identity and self-esteem
Negative effects on the entire population, particularly those who are socially excluded. (−) ↓ physical and mental health Qualitative study
Literature review:[61, 62]
  1. (−) Negative impact; ↑ Increase; ↓ Decrease