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Table 5 Impact matrix for La Herrera

From: Urban regeneration as population health intervention: a health impact assessment in the Bay of Pasaia (Spain)

Effects of non-intervention Affected social determinants of health Vulnerable groups and social inequalities in health Potential effects on health and bibliographical sources
Persistence of degraded area Deteriorating physical environment (−) ↓ physical activity (−) ↓ active transport (−) ↓ social cohesion and collective self-esteem Perception of insecurity (−) ↓ physical activity (−) ↓ social cohesion (−) ↓ employment and economic activity Negative effects on the entire population, especially women, the elderly, children, and those with low incomes (−) ↑ obesity, DM II, hypertension, and cancer (−) ↓ musculoskeletal health (−) ↓ perceived physical and mental health (−) ↑ depression and anxiety (−) ↓ sleep quality (−) ↓ self-esteem (−) ↑ stigma and psychosocial stress Qualitative study Quantitative study Literature review:[36, 37, 41, 44, 46, 5357]
Underfunding of potential uses of the area Mixed use of land and recreational areas (−) ↓ active transport (−) ↓ social interaction Negative effects on the entire population, particularly pedestrians and those with low incomes (−) ↑obesity (−) ↓mental health and wellbeing Qualitative study Quantitative study Literature review:[58, 59]
Unsafe and unequal access to metro Accessibility, public transport and connectivity (−) ↓ physical activity (−) ↓ access to services (−) ↑isolation and ↓social cohesion (−) ↑contamination, noise and accidents due to increased traffic Negative effects on the entire population, particularly women, children, the elderly, ethnic minorities, the disabled, and those with low incomes (−) ↑ obesity and chronic diseases (−) ↓ mental health (−) ↑ cardiovascular disease, exacerbation of COPD and asthma, cancer, mortality (−) ↑ irritability, stress and sleep disorders Qualitative study Quantitative study Literature review:[37, 47, 48, 60]
Worsening of conflict with sponsor institutions Psychosocial sphere (−) ↑ mistrust of institutions (−) ↑ sense of social frustration (−) ↓ sense of belonging to the community, collective identity and self-esteem Negative effects on the entire population, particularly those who are socially excluded. (−) ↓ physical and mental health Qualitative study Literature review:[61, 62]
  1. (−) Negative impact; ↑ Increase; ↓ Decrease