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Table 4 Impact matrix for NFM

From: Urban regeneration as population health intervention: a health impact assessment in the Bay of Pasaia (Spain)

Intervention phenomena Structural and proximal determinants affected Vulnerable groups and social inequalities in health Potential health effects Source of evidence
Characteristics of the new fish market (walkable roof garden and emblematic building) Green spaces and recreational areas (+) ↑ physical activity (+) ↑ unstructured activities and social interaction Pedestrian walkways (+) ↑ physical activity (+) ↑ efficiency of land use (+) ↑ access to services and employment Urban quality (+) ↑ physical activity (+) ↑ diet quality (+) ↑Social cohesion (+) ↑ Individual and social self-esteem (+) ↑Employment and social dynamism Positive effects on the population in the area next to the fish market, in particular those who are unemployed and/or have low incomes, no car, and cyclists, pedestrians, women, children, and the elderly (+) ↑ wellbeing and quality of life (+) ↓ poor mental health (+) ↑ self-esteem (+) ↓ stress and fatigue (+) ↑ perceived physical health (+) ↑ sleep quality (+) ↓ chronic diseases: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arterial hypertension, obesity and others (+) ↓cancer (+) ↑musculoskeletal health (+) ↓premature mortality Qualitative study Quantitative study Literature review: [3446]
Operation and activity of the fish market Environmental quality (−) ↑ Noise, odours, persistence of pollution Persistence of heavy traffic (−) ↑Accident rate Negative effects on the entire population, especially in urban areas close to the market and the associated access roads. Increased risk of accidents for children, youths, and the elderly (−) ↓ mental health, ↑stress and irritability (−) ↑ cognitive disorders in children (−) ↑ cardiovascular disease, cancer, mortality due to diabetes mellitus and other causes, and exacerbation of COPD and asthma (−) ↑ injuries, accident-related disabilities Qualitative study Literature review:[4752]
  1. (+) Positive impact; (−) Negative impact; ↑ Increase; ↓ Decrease