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Table 5 Effect of insurance on catastrophic expenditure

From: Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

  Naive model 2SRI
  Coefficient ME Coefficient ME
Insurance −0.739*** −0.036 −0.637*** −0.031
  (0.098)   (0.101)  
Age 0.001 0.000 0.008** 0.000
  (0.002)   (0.003)  
Male −0.106 −0.006 −0.161* −0.009
  (0.069)   (0.071)  
Household size −0.039** −0.002 −0.037* −0.002
  (0.015)   (0.015)  
Rural locality −0.086 −0.004 −0.080 −0.004
  (0.070)   (0.071)  
Year 2009 0.632*** 0.037 0.581*** 0.033
  (0.071)   (0.073)  
Good health status −0.959*** −0.122 −1.046*** −0.138
  (0.119)   (0.125)  
Use of out-patient services 0.501*** 0.046 0.543*** 0.050
  (0.149)   (0.149)  
Use of in-patient services 1.235*** 0.152 1.410*** 0.188
  (0.078)   (0.086)  
Occupation: Farmer 0.043 0.002 −0.037 −0.002
  (0.105)   (0.109)  
 Government/Self employed −0.074 −0.004 −0.085 −0.004
  (0.109)   (0.109)  
 Unemployed −0.114 −0.006 −0.169 −0.008
  (0.176)   (0.176)  
Education: Primary −0.128 −0.007 −0.132 −0.007
  (0.085)   (0.086)  
 Secondary −0.284*** −0.016 −0.170* −0.009
  (0.083)   (0.085)  
 Tertiary −0.294* −0.013 −0.013 −0.001
  (0.148)   (0.162)  
Residual    −1.034*** −0.057
    (0.236)  
Constant −0.990***   −0.936***  
  (0.205)   (0.211)  
Observations 6,448   6,406  
  1. Standard errors in parentheses ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05: ME- marginal effects 2SRI-2-Stage Residual Inclusion