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Table 4 Effect of insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE)

From: Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

Dependent variable: Log OOPE (1) (2)
  Naïve model 2SLS
Insurance −0.749*** −1.984**
  (0.063) (0.647)
Log income 0.279*** 0.355***
  (0.045) (0.060)
Age 0.001 0.012*
  (0.002) (0.006)
Male −0.011 −0.124
  (0.067) (0.089)
Household size −0.047*** −0.044**
  (0.012) (0.013)
Rural locality −0.238*** −0.204**
  (0.068) (0.070)
Year 2009 0.323*** 0.459***
  (0.069) (0.104)
Good health status −0.487*** −0.574***
  (0.097) (0.121)
Use of out-patient services 0.317*** 0.470***
  (0.061) (0.106)
Use of in-patient services 0.964*** 1.009***
  (0.141) (0.148)
Occupation: Farmer −0.049 −0.164
  (0.095) (0.118)
 Government/Self-employed −0.024 −0.066
  (0.096) (0.109)
 Unemployed −0.049 −0.099
  (0.163) (0.182)
Education level: Primary −0.129 −0.155
  (0.085) (0.088)
 Secondary −0.039 0.100
  (0.079) (0.108)
 Tertiary 0.030 0.418
  (0.124) (0.248)
Constant 1.270*** 1.050**
  (0.289) (0.333)
Observations 2,318 2,301
R-squared   0.153
Number of households 1,844 1,833
  1. Standard errors in parentheses *** p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05; 2SLS-2 Stage Least Squares