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Table 1 Household socio-economic characteristics

From: Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

  2009 2011 Difference (p-value)
Mean household size 4.211 4.066 0.145 (0.513)
Locality (%)    
 Rural 1,876 (60.0) 1,876 (60.0) 0 (1.000)
 Urban 1,252 (40.0) 1,252 (40.0) 0 (1.000)
Household head characteristics    
Sex (%)    
 Male 2,016 (64.5) 1,970 (63.0) 46 (0.361)
 Female 1,112 (35.6) 1,158 (37.0) 46 (0.361)
Marital status (%)    
 Never married 508 (16.2) 486 (15.5) 22 (0.496)
 Married 1,997 (63.8) 1,975 (63.1) 2 (0.633)
 Divorced 623 (19.2) 667 (21.3) 44 (0.256)
Religion    
 Christian 2,715 (86.9) 2,776 (88.8) 61 (0.484)
 Muslim 195 (6.2) 201 (6.4) 6 (0.948)
 Traditional 57 (1.8) 41 (1.3) 16 (0.507)
 None 159 (5.1) 107 (3.4) 52 (0.171)
Education (%)    
 None 816 (26.1) 816 (26.1) 0 (1.000)
 Primary 684 (21.9) 649 (20.8) 35 (0.740)
 Secondary 1,341 (42.9) 1,391 (44.5) 50 (0.750)
 Tertiary 287 (9.2) 272 (8.7) 15 (0.912)
Occupation (%)    
 Farmer/fisherman 1,157 (37.0) 1,200 (38.4) 43 (0.883)
 Casual worker 179 (5.7) 228 (7.3) 49 (0.541)
 Student/retired 159 (5.1) 176 (5.6) 17 (0.656)
 Self/government employed 1,514 (48.5) 1,422 (45.5) 92 (0.699)
 Unemployed 116 (3.7) 100 (3.2) 16 (0.584)
Household welfare GH¢ (SE)    
 Mean monthly income 187.2 (4.1) 306.8 (5.8) 245.6 (0.000)
 Mean monthly expenditure 181.9 (5.6) 358.3 (6.2) 268.1 (0.000)
 Headcount poverty 34.4 20.2 27.4 (0.000)
Household health expenditure GH¢ (SE)    
 Mean OOPE: OPD 23.0 (1.9) 32.6 (3.4) 25.7 (0.009)
 Mean OOPE: IPD 51.0 (6.7) 62.2 (14.4) 53.5 (0.425)
Incidence of catastrophic health expenditure 27 % 12 % 15 (0.000)
Insurance Status (%)    
 Insured 986 (31.2) 1,176 (37.5) 190 (0.000)
 Uninsured 2,142 (68.5) 1,952 (62.4) 190 (0.000)
  1. Exchange rate GH¢1.45: US$1 SE: Standard errors