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Table 4 Age-specific maternal education gradients in early childhood health

From: Socioeconomic gradients in early childhood health: evidence from Bangladesh and Nepal

  Bangladesh Nepal
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
  HAZ HAZ WAZ WAZ HAZ HAZ WAZ WAZ
Age 0–11M × Mothers with Sec.Educ. 0.003 –0.038 0.186*** 0.168** 0.106 0.092 0.240* 0.232
  (0.086) (0.086) (0.067) (0.068) (0.167) (0.171) (0.140) (0.141)
Age 12–35M × Mothers with Sec.Educ. 0.139** 0.095 0.268*** 0.247*** 0.247** 0.225* 0.277*** 0.266**
  (0.066) (0.065) (0.053) (0.054) (0.124) (0.126) (0.104) (0.104)
Age 36–59M × Mothers with Sec.Educ. 0.122** 0.079 0.078* 0.060 0.089 0.063 0.201** 0.182*
  (0.052) (0.055) (0.047) (0.049) (0.103) (0.110) (0.097) (0.098)
Child specific controls         
Child’s age         
Age 0–11 M (Reference)         
Age 12–35 M –1.073*** –1.067*** –0.604*** –0.600*** –0.996*** –0.992*** –0.351*** –0.349***
  (0.070) (0.070) (0.057) (0.057) (0.104) (0.109) (0.098) (0.100)
Age 36–59 M –1.052*** –1.048*** –0.738*** –0.737*** –1.094*** –1.089*** –0.447*** –0.439***
  (0.069) (0.069) (0.053) (0.053) (0.107) (0.107) (0.101) (0.101)
Male –0.007 –0.005 0.050* 0.052* –0.040 –0.048 –0.059 –0.063
  (0.034) (0.034) (0.027) (0.027) (0.059) (0.059) (0.048) (0.048)
Birth size –0.345*** –0.342*** –0.454*** –0.452*** –0.344*** –0.328*** –0.420*** –0.413***
  (0.046) (0.046) (0.037) (0.037) (0.081) (0.078) (0.055) (0.054)
Birth order –0.109*** –0.103*** –0.070*** –0.068*** –0.052* –0.050* –0.090*** –0.089***
  (0.021) (0.021) (0.017) (0.017) (0.031) (0.030) (0.026) (0.025)
Maternal controls         
Mother’s age 0.031*** 0.031*** 0.017*** 0.016*** 0.018 0.016 0.017* 0.016*
  (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.012) (0.011) (0.009) (0.009)
Mother’s height 0.056*** 0.056***    0.058*** 0.057***   
  (0.003) (0.003)    (0.006) (0.007)   
Mother’s BMI    0.062*** 0.062***    0.069*** 0.068***
    (0.005) (0.005)    (0.010) (0.010)
Paternal controls         
Father’s age 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.000 –0.011 –0.009 –0.005 –0.003
  (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.008) (0.008) (0.006) (0.006)
Father’s education         
No education (Reference)         
Primary education   –0.044   –0.054   0.082   0.064
   (0.048)   (0.041)   (0.126)   (0.099)
Secondary education   0.129**   0.046   0.118   0.084
   (0.057)   (0.044)   (0.125)   (0.097)
Household characteristics         
Household wealth status         
Richest 0.736*** 0.677*** 0.496*** 0.472*** 0.537*** 0.506*** 0.264** 0.243**
  (0.075) (0.079) (0.062) (0.064) (0.131) (0.130) (0.114) (0.118)
Richer 0.395*** 0.355*** 0.256*** 0.242*** 0.502*** 0.472*** 0.243*** 0.220**
  (0.063) (0.067) (0.056) (0.057) (0.121) (0.118) (0.093) (0.100)
Middle 0.287*** 0.262*** 0.182*** 0.174*** 0.364*** 0.352*** 0.051 0.041
  (0.059) (0.060) (0.045) (0.045) (0.115) (0.113) (0.085) (0.086)
Poorer 0.178*** 0.171*** 0.109** 0.109** 0.126 0.138 -0.075 -0.074
  (0.055) (0.055) (0.044) (0.044) (0.120) (0.121) (0.090) (0.092)
Poorest (Reference)         
Log (Household Size) –0.043 –0.051 –0.001 –0.006 –0.009 –0.004 –0.029 –0.028
  (0.045) (0.045) (0.040) (0.040) (0.096) (0.098) (0.065) (0.066)
Rural 0.043 0.038 0.028 0.025 -0.227** -0.230** -0.030 -0.029
  (0.052) (0.052) (0.046) (0.046) (0.106) (0.106) (0.079) (0.079)
Religion –0.136** –0.128** –0.129** –0.124** –0.177* –0.175* –0.190*** –0.191***
  (0.062) (0.062) (0.055) (0.055) (0.100) (0.102) (0.067) (0.068)
Weighted Sample Size 7508 7505 7508 7504 2352 2342 2349 2339
R-squared 0.206 0.208 0.202 0.203 0.223 0.221 0.186 0.185
F 56.845 52.922 51.842 47.706 26.393 22.717 15.362 14.045
Mean VIF 2.34 2.34 2.36 2.36 1.84 1.89 1.85 1.90
  1. Note: The numbers in the parenthesis refer to the linearized standard errors that account for survey design and sample weight. ***indicates p< 0.01, **indicates p < 0.05 and *indicates p <0.1. Each regression also includes dummies to capture regional effects. The regional dummies for Bangladesh are based on seven major divisions and for Nepal, the regional dummies are based on five developmental regions. The religion dummy captures the Muslim and Hindu religions for Bangladesh and Nepal respectively