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Table 2 Names and explanatory models for local illnesses in chickens, ducks, and swine

From: Local disease concepts relevant to the design of a community-based surveillance program for influenza in rural Guatemala

   Illness namea System Affected Signs Causes Treatments Source of health care
Chicken 1. Accidente por abajo Gastrointestinal Green diarrhea, inappetence, droopy wings, Too much dust in the summer, too much rain in the winter. Unburied animals. Water with batteries, water with coins, medicinal plants, tetracycline Home care, local stores, local pharmacies.
2. Accidente por arriba Respiratory Lethargy, inappetence, droopy wings. Too much dust in the summer, too much rain in the winter. Unburied animals. No treatment. If treated, animal dies faster. Home care.
3. Apolio/polio Neuromuscular Crooked legs, cannot walk. Unspecified disease targets legs Medicinal plants, codeine Home care, local stores, local pharmacies.
4. Calambres Neuromuscular Lethargy, feather loss, legs ache. Warm weather. Medicinal plants Home-care
5. Cólera Gastrointestinal Diarrhea, lethargy, inappetence. Weather changes. Medicinal plants, loperamide Home-care, local stores, local pharmacies.
6. Coriza Respiratory Swollen face, dyspnea Weather changes, dust. Tetracycline, amoxicillin, naproxen Home-care, local stores, local pharmacies.
7. Soco/pujo/moco Respiratory disease Nasal discharge, lethargy, inappetence Weather changes. Tetracycline, unspecified eye drops, other antibiotics, oil-soaked feather. Local stores, local pharmacies, home-care.
8. Viruela/buba Systemic/cutaneous Hives, skin rash, blindness, fallen feathers Wind carries microbes, mosquito bite, crescent moon. Topical treatments involving heat (with a nail or charcoal) and iodine, chloride, or nail polish. Home-care.
Duck 1. Accidente Systemic Lethargy, inappetence, green diarrhea, hot ears Too much dust in the summer, too much rain in the winter. Unburied animals. No treatment. If treated, animal dies faster. Home care.
2. Mal de ojo Systemic Lethargy, green diarrhea Drunken men, sweating people Red nail polish in the neck, medicinal plants, isolation. Home-care, traditional healers.
3. Soco/moquillo Respiratory disease Nasal discharge, lethargy, inappetence Weather changes. Tetracycline, unspecified eye drops, other antibiotics, oil-soaked feather. Local stores, local pharmacies, home-care.
4. Buba Cutaneous Hives, skin rash, blindness, fallen feathers Weather changes. Tetracycline, unspecified eye drops, other antibiotics, oil-soaked feather. Local stores, local pharmacies, home-care.
5. Calambres Neuromuscular Lethargy, feather loss, legs ache. Warm weather. Medicinal plants Home-care
6. Coriza Respiratory Swollen face, dyspnea Weather changes, dust. Tetracycline, amoxicillin, naproxen Home-care, local stores, local pharmacies.
7. Accidente por abajo Gastrointestinal Green diarrhea, inappetence, droopy wings, Too much dust in the summer, too much rain in the winter. Unburied animals. Water with batteries, water with coins, medicinal plants, tetracycline Home care, local stores, local pharmacies.
8. Apolio/polio Neuromuscular Crooked legs, cannot walk. Unspecified disease targets legs Medicinal plants, codeine Home care, local stores, local pharmacies.
Swine 1. Empacho Gastrointestinal Lethargy, inappetence hair loss Wind, weather changes, dust, lack of vaccination. Several antibiotics Local pharmacies, home-care.
2. Mal de ojo Systemic Lethargy, green diarrhea Drunken men, sweating people Medicinal plants, isolation. Home-care, traditional healers.
3. Parásitos Gastrointestinal Diarrhea, lethargy, inappetence Lack of vaccination, eating garbage. Lard mixed with panela (unrefined sugar). Home-care
4. Rasquiña/jiote Cutaneous Alopecia, dermatitis, lethargy, inappetence Contaminated water, lack of vaccination. Vitamins, anti-parasite medication. Local pharmacies.
  1. aIllness names respect local terms