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Table 2 The cognitions, attitudes and barriers of Pap smear utilization among women with visual impairments

From: The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment

Variables No experience n = 106 (%) Ever using n = 210 (%) Chi-square/t-test
Do you have any barriers for medical utilization (n = 291)
 No 85 (85.9) 160 (83.3) 0.313
 Yes 14 (14.1) 32 (16.7)  
Do you know the “Pap smear” (n = 316)
 No 3 (2.8) 0 (0.00) 3.160***
 Yes    
 Never using 103 (97.2) 0 (0.00)  
 Have used 0 (0.00) 210 (100.0)  
Sufficient information of pap smear (n = 308)
 Insufficient 52 (50.5) 126 (61.5) 5.157
 Ordinary 36 (35.0) 47 (22.9)  
 Not insufficient 15 (14.5) 32 (15.6)  
Know HPV vaccination (n = 307)
 Yes 52 (49.5) 119 (58.9) 2.467
 No 53 (50.5) 83 (41.1)  
HPV is the major cause of cervical cancer (n = 306)
 Yes 64 (61.5) 119 (58.9) 0.197
 No 40 (38.5) 83 (41.1)  
Still using pap smear regularly if accept HPV vaccination (n = 305)
 Yes 25 (24.0) 48 (23.9) 0.001***
 No 79 (76.0) 153 (76.1)  
The mean age of the first time to accept pap smear NT 38.8 ± 10.6  
  1. NT no testing