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Table 1 The Pap smear utilization by demographic characteristics among women with visual impairments, with t-test and Chi-square significance indicated

From: The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment

Variables No experience n = 106 (%) Ever using n = 210 (%) Chi-square/t-test
Demographic characteristics
Age (n = 316) 41.44 ± 15.60 49.95 ± 8.85 −5.210***
 15 ~ 29 36 (34.0) 6 (2.9) 59.139***
 30 ~ 64 70 (66.0) 204 (97.1)  
Marriage (n = 306)
 Married 50 (48.1) 171 (84.7) 75.701***
 Unmarried 50 (48.1) 12 (5.9)  
 Others 4 (3.8) 19 (9.4)  
Education (n = 292)    
 Elementary school diploma and lower 22 (22.4) 77 (39.7) 15.913***
 High school diploma 54 (34.8) 101 (52.1)  
 University and higher 22 (55.2) 16 (8.2)  
Employee status (n = 306)    
 No 66 (63.5) 174 (86.1) 33.857***
 Yes 25 (24.0) 28 (13.9)  
 Student 13 (12.5) 0 (0.0)  
Severity of disability (n = 316)
 Mild 32 (30.2) 95 (45.2) 6.641*
 Moderate 37 (34.9) 57 (27.1)  
 Severe 37 (34.9) 58 (27.7)  
The causes of disability (n = 292)
 Inborn (congenital) 41 (39.8) 49 (25.9) 101.93***
 Acquired 62 (60.2) 140 (74.1)  
Gynecology experiences (n = 313)
 No 43 (41.0) 3 (1.4) 101.93***
 Ever: before 1 year 39 (37.1) 66 (31.7)  
 Ever: during 1 year 23 (21.9) 139 (66.9)  
Prefer gynecologist with female (n = 306)
 No 38 (37.3) 93 (45.6) 1.929
 Yes 64 (62.7) 111 (54.4)  
Main care giver (n = 312)
 Care-self 6 (5.8) 6 (2.9) 74.845***
 Mother and sisters 49 (47.1) 14 (6.7)  
 Daughter and daughter in law 26 (25.0) 91 (43.8)  
 Husband 19 (18.3) 81 (38.9)  
 Others 4 (3.8) 16 (7.7)  
Did you get any suggestions about pap smear from caregiver (n = 275)
 No 67 (80.7) 149 (77.6) 0.334
 Yes 16 (19.3) 43 (22.4)  
  1. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001