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Table 4 Linear trends for annual Gini coefficients and concentration indices in 1992–2008 in Finland

From: Comparative observational study of mortality amenable by health policy and care between rural and urban Finland: no excess segregation of mortality in the capital despite its increasing residential differentiation

Mortality GINI/C City of Helsinki Nine next most-populated municipalities Rest of Finland
Women Men Women Men Women Men
Estimate 95 % Cl Estimate 95 % Cl Estimate 95 % Cl Estimate 95 % Cl Estimate 95 % Cl Estimate 95 % Cl
OM GINI .0026*/ns .0006 to .0045 .0026**/ns .0010 to .0041 .0014 -.0005 to .0033 .0013*/ns .0001 to .0026 .0024* .0007 to .0042 .0020**/ns .0005 to .0035
OM C -.0061*** -.0078 to -.0044 -.0065*** -.0072 to -.0059 -.0074*** -.0098 to -.0051 -.0061*** -.0070 to -.0051 -.0066*** -.0086 to -.0047 -.0086*** -.0095 to -.0078
AM GINI .0020 -.0008 to .0048 .0010 -.0025 to .0045 .0011 -.0020 to .0042 .0038* .0002 to .0075 .0047**/* .0016 to .0078 .0044* .0008 to .0080
AM C -.0076*** -.0108 to -.0044 -.0085** -.0134 to -.0036 -.0041* -.0074 to -.0009 -.0059* -.0110 to -.0007 -.007*** -.0101 to -.0039 -.0078*** -.0112 to -.0044
IHD GINI .0062** .0017 to .0107 .0045*/ns .0007 to .0082 .0080**/*** .0037 to .0123 .0026 -.0012 to .0064 .0114*** .0069 to .0158 .0051** .0015 to .0087
IHD C -.0088** -.0147 to -.0030 -.0058** -.0092 to -.0025 -.0105*** -.0141 to -.0069 -.0058*** -.0081 to -.0035 -.0104*** -.0135 to -.0073 -.0094*** -.0121 to -.0068
AR GINI -.0050 -.0141 to .0042 -.0019 ns/* -.0070 to .0033 -.0103* -.0198 to -.0007 -.0029 -.0076 to .0017 -.0122*/** -.0217 to -.0027 -.0055*/** -.0106 to -.0004
AR C -.0063* -.0116 to -.0009 -.0087*** -.0113 to -.0062 -.0101*** -.0151 to -.0052 -.0088*** -.0118 to -.0058 -.0097*** -.0139 to -.0054 -.0103*** -.0128 to -.0078
  1. OM overall mortality, AM amenable mortality, IHD ischemic heart disease mortality, AR alcohol related mortality, GINI Gini coefficients, markings after slash (/) indicate changed levels of significance due to income standardization, C concentration indices, ns not significant
  2. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001