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Table 3 Risk ratios of overall mortality in two lowest income quintiles compared to the highest quintile

From: Comparative observational study of mortality amenable by health policy and care between rural and urban Finland: no excess segregation of mortality in the capital despite its increasing residential differentiation

Quintile Area Men Women
   Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
   RR 95 % Cl RR 95 % Cl RR 95 % Cl RR 95 % Cl
Q1 HKI 4.02 3.04–5.30 3.41 2.86–4.06 3.33 2.69–4.12 3.19 2.60–3.92
  NNMM 4.32 3.14–5.94 3.52 2.91–4.26 3.27 2.69–3.98 3.11 2.58–3.74
  RoF 3.46 2.57–4.66 2.95 2.52–3.46 2.82 2.30–3.45 2.72 2.25–3.28
Q2 HKI 3.24 2.47–4.25 2.84 2.33–3.46 2.50 1.99–3.15 2.37 1.88–3.00
  NNMM 2.83 2.09–3.84 2.56 2.09–3.14 2.23 1.85–2.69 2.13 1.78–2.55
  RoF 2.42 1.85–3.17 2.29 1.93–2.70 1.98 1.66–2.36 1.95 1.64–2.31
  1. HKI City of Helsinki, NNMM nine next-most populated municipalities, RoF rest of Finland, Model 1 no explanatory factors, Model 2 long-term unemployment (not significant in any of the three regions) and living alone (men: p < .001 in all the three regions – women: p < .01 in HKI, and p < .001 in both NNMM and RoF)