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Table 1 The tooth filling utilization among people with disabilities: basic characteristics and bivariate analysis

From: Utilization of tooth filling services by people with disabilities in Taiwan

      Did not use Used  
Variables Total % N % N % p-value
Overall rate of use 933,487   769,869 82.47 163,618 17.53  
Gender        <0.001*
  Female 386,470 41.40 312,284 80.80 74,186 19.20  
  Male 547,017 58.60 457,585 83.65 89,432 16.35  
Age        <0.001*
  <20 years 79,290 8.49 58,567 73.86 20,723 26.14  
  20–24 years 30,235 3.24 23,740 78.52 6,495 21.48  
  25–29 years 41,815 4.48 33,296 79.63 8,519 20.37  
  30–34 years 44,714 4.79 36,249 81.07 8,465 18.93  
  35–39 years 53,901 5.77 44,191 81.99 9,710 18.01  
  40–44 years 73,354 7.86 60,246 82.13 13,108 17.87  
  45–49 years 97,836 10.48 80,184 81.96 17,652 18.04  
  50–54 years 98,301 10.53 80,820 82.22 17,481 17.78  
  55–59 years 92,438 9.90 76,513 82.77 15,925 17.23  
  60–64 years 73,382 7.86 61,112 83.28 12,270 16.72  
  65–69 years 81,554 8.74 68,799 84.36 12,755 15.64  
  70–74 years 82,694 8.86 71,648 86.64 11,046 13.36  
  ≥75 years 83,973 9.00 74,504 88.72 9,469 11.28  
average age (mean, SD) 49.98 18.97 50.76 18.73 46.27 19.66  
Educational level        <0.001*
  Elementary school and under 395,409 42.36 339,179 85.78 56,230 14.22  
  Junior high school 160,067 17.15 132,981 83.08 27,086 16.92  
  Senior (vocational) high school 170,568 18.27 134,799 79.03 35,769 20.97  
  Junior college and university or above 78,672 8.43 57,953 73.66 20,719 26.34  
  Unclear 128,771 13.79 104,957 81.51 23,814 18.49  
Marital status         <0.001*
  Married   421,340 45.14 348,931 82.81 72,409 17.19  
  Unmarried   235,128 25.19 189,964 80.79 45,164 19.21  
  Divorced or widowed 31,110 3.33 25,891 83.22 5,219 16.78  
  Unclear   245,909 26.34 205,083 83.40 40,826 16.60  
Aboriginal status        <0.001*
  No   915,624 98.09 754,092 82.36 161,532 17.64  
  Yes   17,863 1.91 15,777 88.32 2,086 11.68  
Urbanization of residence areaa        <0.001*
  Level 1   171,415 18.36 134,078 78.22 37,337 21.78  
  Level 2   239,908 25.70 192,884 80.40 47,024 19.60  
  Level 3   178,416 19.11 147,534 82.69 30,882 17.31  
  Level 4   178,728 19.15 151,507 84.77 27,221 15.23  
  Level 5   36,456 3.91 32,053 87.92 4,403 12.08  
  Level 6   66,598 7.13 58,017 87.12 8,581 12.88  
  Level 7   61,966 6.64 53,796 86.82 8,170 13.18  
Premium-based monthly salary (NT$)        <0.001*
  Dependent population 312,480 33.47 257,249 82.32 55,231 17.68  
  ≤17,280 262,965 28.17 220,503 83.85 42,462 16.15  
  17,281–22,800 253,096 27.11 212,029 83.77 41,067 16.23  
  22,801–28,800 35,726 3.83 27,978 78.31 7,748 21.69  
  28,801–36,300 24,772 2.65 19,049 76.90 5,723 23.10  
  36,301–45,800 26,214 2.81 19,857 75.75 6,357 24.25  
  ≥45,801 18,234 1.95 13,204 72.41 5,030 27.59  
Low-income household        <0.001*
  No   877,491 94.00 722,409 82.33 155,082 17.67  
  Yes   55,996 6.00 47,460 84.76 8,536 15.24  
Catastrophic injury or disease        <0.001*
  No   642,516 68.83 534,430 83.18 108,086 16.82  
  Yes   290,971 31.17 235,439 80.91 55,532 19.09  
Relevant chronic diseases        
  Cancer        <0.001*
   No 884,359 94.74 730,664 82.62 153,695 17.38  
   Yes 49,128 5.26 39,205 79.80 9,923 20.20  
  Endocrine and metabolic disease        0.001*
   No 664,445 71.18 547,440 82.39 117,005 17.61  
   Yes 269,042 28.82 222,429 82.67 46,613 17.33  
  Mental illness        <0.001*
   No 668,022 71.56 557,214 83.41 110,808 16.59  
   Yes 265,465 28.44 212,655 80.11 52,810 19.89  
  Disease of the nervous system        <0.001*
   No 789,656 84.59 652,148 82.59 137,508 17.41  
   Yes 143,831 15.41 117,721 81.85 26,110 18.15  
  Disease of the circulatory system       <0.001*
   No 589,991 63.20 481,890 81.68 108,101 18.32  
   Yes 343,496 36.80 287,979 83.84 55,517 16.16  
  Disease of the respiratory system       <0.001*
   No 782,423 83.82 649,470 83.01 132,953 16.99  
   Yes 151,064 16.18 120,399 79.70 30,665 20.30  
  Disease of the digestive system       <0.001*
   No 682,929 73.16 568,242 83.21 114,687 16.79  
   Yes 250,558 26.84 201,627 80.47 48,931 19.53  
  Disease of the urinary system       <0.001*
   No 869,390 93.13 716,469 82.41 152,921 17.59  
   Yes 64,097 6.87 53,400 83.31 10,697 16.69  
  Disease of the skeletal and muscular system and connective tissue     <0.001*
   No 692,897 74.23 577,247 83.31 115,650 16.69  
   Yes 240,590 25.77 192,622 80.06 47,968 19.94  
  Disease of the eyes and auxiliary organs       <0.001*
   No 856,755 91.78 709,338 82.79 147,417 17.21  
   Yes 76,732 8.22 60,531 78.89 16,201 21.11  
  Infectious diseases        <0.001*
   No 905,982 97.05 747,844 82.55 158,138 17.45  
   Yes 27,505 2.95 22,025 80.08 5,480 19.92  
  Congenital malformation       <0.001*
   No 912,276 97.73 753,770 82.63 158,506 17.37  
   Yes 21,211 2.27 16,099 75.90 5,112 24.10  
  Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders       <0.001*
   No 866,628 92.84 716,390 82.66 150,238 17.34  
   Yes 66,859 7.16 53,479 79.99 13,380 20.01  
  Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs       <0.001*
   No 902,629 96.69 744,849 82.52 157,780 17.48  
   Yes 30,858 3.31 25,020 81.08 5,838 18.92  
  Diseases of the ear and mastoid process       <0.001*
   No 885,954 94.91 732,903 82.72 153,051 17.28  
   Yes 47,533 5.09 36,966 77.77 10,567 22.23  
  Others         <0.001*
   No 821,048 87.95 681,738 83.03 139,310 16.97  
   Yes 112,439 12.05 88,131 78.38 24,308 21.62  
Type of disability       <0.001*
  Visual impairment 46,201 4.95 38,131 82.53 8,070 17.47  
  Hearing impediment 85,252 9.13 67,004 78.60 18,248 21.40  
  Speech impediment 12,539 1.34 10,210 81.43 2,329 18.57  
  Limb impediment 349,790 37.47 292,704 83.68 57,086 16.32  
  Mental retardation 94,627 10.14 78,660 83.13 15,967 16.87  
  Multiple impediments 90,649 9.71 78,549 86.65 12,100 13.35  
  Major organ malfunction 105,927 11.35 85,828 81.03 20,099 18.97  
  Facial disfigurement 4,349 0.47 3,505 80.59 844 19.41  
  Dementia 16,441 1.76 14,766 89.81 1,675 10.19  
  Autism 9,155 0.98 6,484 70.82 2,671 29.18  
  Chromosomal abnormalities 2,102 0.23 1,645 78.26 457 21.74  
  Congenital metabolic disorders 611 0.07 389 63.67 222 36.33  
  Congenital defect 1,106 0.12 836 75.59 270 24.41  
  Mental illness 106,442 11.40 84,672 79.55 21,770 20.45  
  Impaired balance 2,733 0.29 2,284 83.57 449 16.43  
  Refractory epilepsy 4,153 0.44 3,148 75.80 1,005 24.20  
  Rare diseases 1,410 0.15 1,054 74.75 356 25.25  
Severity of disability        <0.001*
  Mild 354,883 38.02 282,016 79.47 72,867 20.53  
  Moderate 317,526 34.02 262,009 82.52 55,517 17.48  
  Severe 158,648 17.00 137,106 86.42 21,542 13.58  
  Very severe 102,430 10.97 88,738 86.63 13,692 13.37  
  1. aLevel one: the most urbanized areas
  2. *p < 0.05