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Table 4 Comparisons of adverse childhood experiences and family dysfunction among MSM with a lower and higher level of psychological distress

From: Mental health among men who have sex with men in Cambodia: Implications for integration of mental health services within HIV programmes

Adverse childhood experiences and family dysfunction Total Total GHQ-12 score
(n = 394) ≤3 (n = 241) >3 (n = 153) p-value*
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)
 Physically hurt that needed medical care 90 (22.8) 42 (17.4) 48 (31.4) 0.001
 Family member said hurtful or insulting things to me 134 (34.0) 64 (26.6) 70 (45.8) <0.001
 Someone touched me in a sexual way 55 (14.0) 24 (10.0) 31 (20.3) 0.004
 Had someone to take care of or protected me 376 (95.4) 232 (96.3) 144 (94.1) 0.32
 Someone in family made me feel that I was loved 377 (95.7) 235 (97.5) 142 (92.8) 0.03
Family dysfunction
 Parent or guardian had been physically abused 70 (17.8) 24 (10.0) 46 (30.1) <0.001
 Family member had a drinking problem/drug user 115 (29.2) 64 (26.6) 51 (33.3) 0.15
 Family member had been depressed/mentally ill 66 (16.8) 18 (7.5) 48 (31.4) <0.001
 Parents ever been separated or divorced 54 (35.3) 70 (29.0) 54 (35.3) 0.19
 Family member had been to prison 12 (3.0) 8 (3.3) 4 (2.6) 0.69
  1. MSM men who have sex with men GHQ general health questionnaire
  2. Values are number (%)
  3. *Chi-square test was used