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Table 1 Comparisons of characteristics of MSM with a lower and higher level of psychological distress

From: Mental health among men who have sex with men in Cambodia: Implications for integration of mental health services within HIV programmes

Socio-economic characteristics Total Total GHQ-12 score
(n = 394) ≤3 (n = 241) >3 (n = 153) p-value*
Provinces     0.07
 Battambang 329 (83.5) 208 (86.3) 121 (79.1)  
 Siem Reap 65 (16.5) 33 (13.7) 32 (20.9)  
Gender identity     0.25
 Male 228 (57.9) 139 (57.7) 89 (58.2)  
 Female 81 (20.6) 55 (22.8) 26 (17.0)  
 Transgender 85 (21.5) 47 (19.5) 38 (24.8)  
Mean age (in year) 23.7 ± 5.2 23.1 ± 4.8 24.8 ± 5.7 0.001
Years of formal education completed 9.5 ± 3.2 9.8 ± 3.1 9.1 ± 3.3 0.04
Marital status     0.91
 Never married 355 (90.1) 217 (90.0) 138 (90.2)  
 Married and living together 30 (7.6) 19 (7.9) 11 (7.2)  
 Divorced/separated/widowed 9 (2.3) 5 (2.1) 4 (2.6)  
Main occupation     0.18
 Unemployed 35 (8.9) 17 (7.1) 18 (11.8)  
 Students 102 (25.9) 70 (20.9) 32 (20.9)  
 Farmer/laborer 59 (15.0) 39 (16.2) 20 (13.1)  
 Self-employed 112 (28.4) 66 (27.4) 46 (30.1)  
 Other 81 (21.8) 49 (20.3) 37 (24.2)  
Average income in the past month (USD) 210 ± 629 168 ± 505 275 ± 784 0.10
Duration living in current city (in months) 232 ± 106 225 ± 98 244 ± 117 0.09
Self-perception of HIV risk compared to the general population   0.02
 Higher 140 (35.5) 73 (30.3) 67 (43.8)  
 Same 70 (17.8) 43 (17.8) 27 (17.6)  
 Lower 184 (46.7) 125 (51.9) 59 (38.6)  
Self-rated overall health   0.10
 Good/very good 147 (37.3) 80 (33.2) 67 (43.8)  
 Neither good nor poor 224 (56.9) 147 (61.0) 77 (50.3)  
 Poor/very poor 23 (5.8) 14 (5.8) 9 (5.9)  
Self-rated quality of life     <0.001
 Good/very good 119 (30.2) 68 (28.2) 51 (33.3)  
 Neither good nor poor 256 (65.0) 170 (70.5) 86 (56.2)  
 Poor/very poor 19 (4.8) 3 (1.2) 16 (10.5)  
Ever thought to commit suicide 42 (10.7) 23 (9.5) 19 (12.4) 0.37
Ever attempted to commit suicide 26 (6.6) 18 (7.5) 8 (5.2) 0.38
  1. GHQ general health questionnaire, MSM men who have sex with men
  2. Values are number (%) for categorical variables and mean ± SD for continuous variables
  3. *Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and Student’s t-test was used for continuous variables