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Table 5 Racial/ethnic differences in health status, special healthcare needs, access to healthcare, unmet healthcare needs, use of health services, parental out-of-pocket costs of health services, parental satisfaction with pediatric care, and parental-reported financial burden of child’s healthcare among uninsured minority children eligible for but not insured by Medicaid or CHIP (N = 267)a

From: A cross-sectional study of parental awareness of and reasons for lack of health insurance among minority children, and the impact on health, access to care, and unmet needs

Measure Latinos (N = 174) African-Americans (N = 93) P
Health status
 Worry about child’s health more than other people 89 % 73 % <.01
Special healthcare need
 Asthma 10 % 25 % <.01
 ADHD 4 % 12 % .02
Access to healthcare
 Has no PCP 70 % 52 % <.01
 No usual source of preventive care 51 % 23 % <.01
 Source of sick care and preventive care different 60 % 45 % .02
 Usual source of care has no night or weekend office hours 93 % 79 % <.01
 Doesn’t have 24-hour phone coverage for sick care 95 % 75 % <.01
 No access to same-day sick-care visit without appointment 27 % 43 % .01
 Never/sometimes receive help or advice over phone 3 % 11 % .01
Unmet healthcare needs
 Didn’t receive all needed acute care 5 % 18 % .01
 Didn’t receive all needed prescription medications 7 % 15 % .03
Use and out-of-pocket costs of health services
 Mean out-of-pocket cost per doctor visitb $153.2 $119.5 <.01
 Mean out-of-pocket cost per preventive-care visitc $50.0 $40.4 .03
 Mean out-of-pocket cost per sick visitd 210.3 160.5 .01
 Mean number of sick visits in past year 1.8 1.7 .04
 Mean number of ED visits in past year 0.5 1.5 .03
Parental satisfaction with care
 Doctor never/sometimes understands how I prefer to raise my child 21 % 37 % .01
Parental-reported financial burden
 Need additional income to cover child’s medical expenses 39 % 55 % .02
  1. aThere were no significant racial/ethnic differences for any measure not listed in the table
  2. bAmong children who made any doctor visit
  3. cAmong children who made any preventive-care visit
  4. dAmong children who made any sick visit