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Table 3 Financing arrangements

From: State budget transfers to health insurance funds: extending universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries of the WHO European Region

Country Type of transfer logic Calculation logic to determine state budget transfer amounts Financing source of government revenue transfers Social Security Funds as % of GGHE (2013) [15]
Albania lump-sum [31, 44] base for calculating government transfer is per capita health care expenditure during the previous year [41] central government budget [31] 74.1
Bosnia & Herzegovina Federation: per capita (for unemployed)
Republika Srpska: per capita [61]
Federation: n/a
Republika Srpska: contributions from the entity budget may not be less than the average per person contribution from the previous year [61]
unemployed entitled to benefits: Unemployment Fund
all other exempted: entity budget [61]
97.5
Bulgaria per capita [38] unemployed entitled to benefits: 8 % of the unemployment benefit (needs to be between the minimum and maximum income basis for insurance contributions),
others: 8 % of a predefined minimum income basis for insurance contributions [38]
unemployed entitled to benefits: Unemployment Fund
all other exempted: central government budget [38]
76.4
Georgia (MIP) per capita [21] contribution is determined through a tender process where insurance companies propose a contribution at which they would provide insurance covering a predefined benefit package; the insurance company with the lowest offer is selected [21] central government budget two regions fund additional beneficiaries out of their regional government budgets [21] 68.8
Kyrgyzstan per capita [63] base for calculation is 1.5 times the minimum wage [63] central government budget [63];
share of government transfers as of SHI revenues: 78 % (includes funding for the state guaranteed benefit package for all) [48]
64.1
Lithuania per capita [75] up to 36 % of the average gross monthly wage lagged by 2 years [76]
Counter-cyclical measures of compulsory health insurance contributions made by the state on behalf of the unemployed and economically inactive people
central government budget [77];
share of government transfers as of SHI revenues: 48 % (calculated by the authors based on data from [76]
85.1
Montenegro per capita [68] unemployed entitled to benefits: 7.5 % of the unemployment benefit
others: determined by law [61, 68]
unemployed entitled to benefits: unemployment fund:
all other exempted: central government budget [61, 67]
89.3
Republic of Moldova lump-sum [26] at least 12.1 % of the total government budget (annually) [26] central government budget [26]
share of government transfers as of total SHI budget: 55 % [78]
85.0
Romania women on maternity leave, people on sick leave, the unemployed, recipients of social assistance, prisoners: per capita [24]
others: n/a
woman on maternity leave, women on leave to take care of children < 2 years (<3 years if disabled), prisoners: 6.5 % of the sum representing the value of two national minimum gross wages
people on sick leave, unemployed, recipients of social assistance: 6.5 % of the sick leave, unemployment benefit or social assistance [24]
others: n/a
women on maternity leave, prisoners, persons in military service: central government budget;
people on sick leave: social security budget;
unemployed: unemployment fund;
recipients of social assistance: local government budget [24]
all other exempted: n/a
83.0
Russian Federation lump- sum [27] per-capita amount of transfers is not specified; decided by the government (budget contributions not enough to cover the costs of the exempted population considering that utilization is also much higher compared to the contributors) [19] regional government budgets [27] 38.9
Serbia per capita [61] 15.9 % of the average wage (the government not always gives adequate funding for the exempted) [61] disabled people: Pension and Disability Fund;
all other exempted: central government budget [61, 72]
93.6
TFYR Macedonia per capita [79] unemployed entitled to benefits: 10 % of the benefit
recipients of social assistance, prisoners, war invalids, families of fallen soldiers: 10 % of half the average wage
all other exempted: 5.4 % of half the average wage [79]
the unemployed: unemployment fund
all other exempted: central government budget [79]
91.6
Turkey (Green Card Scheme) lump-sum [23] n/a central government budget [23] 64.1