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Table 3 Financing arrangements

From: State budget transfers to health insurance funds: extending universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries of the WHO European Region

Country Type of transfer logic Calculation logic to determine state budget transfer amounts Financing source of government revenue transfers Social Security Funds as % of GGHE (2013) [15]
Albania lump-sum [31, 44] base for calculating government transfer is per capita health care expenditure during the previous year [41] central government budget [31] 74.1
Bosnia & Herzegovina Federation: per capita (for unemployed) Republika Srpska: per capita [61] Federation: n/a Republika Srpska: contributions from the entity budget may not be less than the average per person contribution from the previous year [61] unemployed entitled to benefits: Unemployment Fund all other exempted: entity budget [61] 97.5
Bulgaria per capita [38] unemployed entitled to benefits: 8 % of the unemployment benefit (needs to be between the minimum and maximum income basis for insurance contributions), others: 8 % of a predefined minimum income basis for insurance contributions [38] unemployed entitled to benefits: Unemployment Fund all other exempted: central government budget [38] 76.4
Georgia (MIP) per capita [21] contribution is determined through a tender process where insurance companies propose a contribution at which they would provide insurance covering a predefined benefit package; the insurance company with the lowest offer is selected [21] central government budget two regions fund additional beneficiaries out of their regional government budgets [21] 68.8
Kyrgyzstan per capita [63] base for calculation is 1.5 times the minimum wage [63] central government budget [63]; share of government transfers as of SHI revenues: 78 % (includes funding for the state guaranteed benefit package for all) [48] 64.1
Lithuania per capita [75] up to 36 % of the average gross monthly wage lagged by 2 years [76] Counter-cyclical measures of compulsory health insurance contributions made by the state on behalf of the unemployed and economically inactive people central government budget [77]; share of government transfers as of SHI revenues: 48 % (calculated by the authors based on data from [76] 85.1
Montenegro per capita [68] unemployed entitled to benefits: 7.5 % of the unemployment benefit others: determined by law [61, 68] unemployed entitled to benefits: unemployment fund: all other exempted: central government budget [61, 67] 89.3
Republic of Moldova lump-sum [26] at least 12.1 % of the total government budget (annually) [26] central government budget [26] share of government transfers as of total SHI budget: 55 % [78] 85.0
Romania women on maternity leave, people on sick leave, the unemployed, recipients of social assistance, prisoners: per capita [24] others: n/a woman on maternity leave, women on leave to take care of children < 2 years (<3 years if disabled), prisoners: 6.5 % of the sum representing the value of two national minimum gross wages people on sick leave, unemployed, recipients of social assistance: 6.5 % of the sick leave, unemployment benefit or social assistance [24] others: n/a women on maternity leave, prisoners, persons in military service: central government budget; people on sick leave: social security budget; unemployed: unemployment fund; recipients of social assistance: local government budget [24] all other exempted: n/a 83.0
Russian Federation lump- sum [27] per-capita amount of transfers is not specified; decided by the government (budget contributions not enough to cover the costs of the exempted population considering that utilization is also much higher compared to the contributors) [19] regional government budgets [27] 38.9
Serbia per capita [61] 15.9 % of the average wage (the government not always gives adequate funding for the exempted) [61] disabled people: Pension and Disability Fund; all other exempted: central government budget [61, 72] 93.6
TFYR Macedonia per capita [79] unemployed entitled to benefits: 10 % of the benefit recipients of social assistance, prisoners, war invalids, families of fallen soldiers: 10 % of half the average wage all other exempted: 5.4 % of half the average wage [79] the unemployed: unemployment fund all other exempted: central government budget [79] 91.6
Turkey (Green Card Scheme) lump-sum [23] n/a central government budget [23] 64.1