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Table 1 Effect of community navigator intervention to improve chronic disease management and participation in primary care for cancer screening among immigrant and ethnic populations in the United States

From: What is the scope of improving immigrant and ethnic minority healthcare using community navigators: A systematic scoping review

Study Immigrant Ethnic Population Size (n) Age (y) Study period Clinical Condition/Risk Factor Primary Outcome Major Effects of Intervention on Primary Outcome
Islam et al. [23] Sikh, Asian Indian 108 18-75 6 months Type 2 diabetes BMI, weight, glucose level, blood pressure,total cholesterol. Significant reduction in glucose level (22.4 %), weight (2.99 %) and BMI (2.88 %) and blood pressure (systolic 10.18 %, diastolic 6.14 %), all Ps < 0.01. No significant reduction in cholesterol.
Islam et al. [34] Korean American 48 18-75 6 months Type 2 diabetes BMI, weight, glucose level, blood pressure, total cholesterol. Positive directional changes for the treatment group, though none were statistically significant at P < 0.05
Lujan et al. [22] Hispanic 150 Mean age 50 6 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant reduction by 0.45 % (P < 0.001)
Corkery et al. [32] Hispanic 40 NR NR Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant reduction by 1.8 % (P < 0.004)
Spencer et al. [30] African American, Latino 164 ≥18 6 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant reduction by 0.8 % (P < 0.01)
Fedder et al. [27] African-American 117 Mean age 57 ± 12 28 months Type 2 diabetes Emergency Room (ER) visit, hospitalization ER visits and hospitalization declined by 40 % and 33 % respectively (P = 0.02)
Palmas et al. [33] Hispanic 360 35-70 12 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) No significant improvement on HbA1c level
Rothschild et al. [35] Hispanic 144 ≥18 2 years Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) and blood pressure Significant between group differences in blood HbA1c level at the end of year 1 (−0.55 P = .021) and year 2 (−0.69 P = .005). No significant reduction in blood pressure.
Ingram et al. [37] Hispanic 70 Average age 60 12 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant reduction by 1% (P = 0.01)
Perez-Escamilla R et al. [36] Latino 211 ≥21 18 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant group difference in reduction of HbA1c level (−0.55, P = 0.009)
Prezio et al. [31] Hispanic 189 18-75 12 months Type 2 diabetes Blood HbA1c level (%) Significant reduction by 0.7 % (P = 0.02)
Ursua et al. [43] Filipino 39 25-75 4 months Hypertension management Blood pressure control, appointment keeping and medication adherence 27.3 % increase in number of individuals with controlled blood pressure
Hurtado et al. [4] African American, American Indian, Hispanic and Filipino 849 Mean age 48 3 years Cardiovascular risk factors Heart healthy knowledge, heart healthy meal, CVD risk factor behavior Heart healthy knowledge score and CVD risk factor behavior increased by 26 % and 44 % (P < 0.001) respectively.
Sanchez et al. [41] Latino 96 ≥18 9 weeks Hypertension management Food habit and physical activity Significant improvement in self reported behavior
Balcazar et al. [21] Latino 320 NR 6 months Cardiovascular risk factors Health habits, community referrals, screening, information sharing 18 % improvement of average overall score (P < 0.001)
Spinner et al. [40] Latino 435 NR 65 days Cardiovascular risk factors Physical activity, heart healthy knowledge, heart healthy meal Significant increase in physical activity (21 %), heart health knowledge (27 %) and heart healthy meal preparation (15 %), all Ps < 0.001.
Balcazar et al. [26] Hispanic 85 NR 12 months Cardiovascular risk factors Weight, BMI, blood pressure, LDL, HDL, triglyceride level, HbA1c Significant reduction in LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001), triglyceride (P = 0.02) levels.
de Heer et al. [39] Hispanic 328 30-75 4 months Cardiovascular risk factors Protective health behaviors, health beliefs, contextual and social factors Improved nutritional consumption
Balcazar et al. [38] Hispanic 98 52.3 9 weeks Hypertension Weight, BMI, blood pressure, food habit Significant reduction in salt, sodium and fat intake
Koniak-Griffin et al. [24] Latino women 223 35-64 32 months Cardiovascular risk factors Weight, BMI, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, food physical exercise Significant improvements in dietary habits, waist circumference and physical exercise.
Kandula et al. [42] South Asian 63 30-59 6 months Cardiovascular risk factor Weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c level, health behaviors, knowledge, coping, and exercise confidence Significant between group differences in weight (−3.2 lb, P = 0.04) and HbA1c (−0.43 %, P < 0.01) reductions.
Hunter et al. [44] Hispanic 101 40-70 28 months Chronic disease prevention Participation in routine preventive chronic disease screening Women in the intervention group were 35 % more likely to go for rescreening than those in the control group.
Staten et al. [10] Hispanic 254 ≥18 41 months Chronic disease prevention BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary habits and physical activity Significant reduction in BMI (P = 0.04), waist circumference (P < 0.001), blood pressure (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P = 0.008)
Schwartz et al. [28] Hispanic 450 18-84 3 years Obesity and metabolic syndrome BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c, dietary habits, physical activity. 72 %, 69 %, 59 %, and 48 % of participants reduced weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure respectively. Glucose, HbA1c and total cholesterol decreased by 6.3 %, 3.8 % and 2.3 % respectively.
Martin et al. [25] African-American 42 21-50 6 months Asthma Asthma self efficacy Significant improvement in asthma quality of life (P = 0.002) and coping (P = 0.01)
Allen et al. [46] Latina 155 ≥18 6 months Breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening Adherence with screening recommendation 24 % and 8 % increase in adherence with breast cancer and to all cancer screening recommendations for one’s age respectively, however, these changes were not statistically significant.
Livaudais et al. [47] Hispanic women 70 40-79 6 months Breast cancer screening General Cancer knowledge, screening practices and intention to be screened Significant improvement in knowledge on cancer prevention (26 %, P = 0.001), intention to do mammogram (8 %, P = 0.014) and discussing mammograms with doctor (30 %, P < 0.001)
Percac-Lima et al. [29] Latina 786 22-86 88 months Cervical cancer screening Missing colposcopy appointment, time to colposcopy and severity of cervical pathology Significant reduction in missing colposcopy (4.1 %, P = 0.024) and severity of cervical pathology (9.9 %, P = 0.035)
Chen et al. [11] African Americans and Hispanics 532 ≥50 31 months Colon Cancer screening Colonoscopy completion, endoscopic findings, and patient satisfaction about navigator 66 % completed colposcopy screening, 16 % had adenomas, only 5 % had inadequate bowel prep, 66 % patients agreed that they would not do colonoscopy without navigation.