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Table 1 Pharmaceutical policies and equitable access to medicines: a framework for analysis

From: Inequalities in medicine use in Central Eastern Europe: an empirical investigation of socioeconomic determinants in eight countries

  Macro level Micro level
FINANCING Sustainable funding Affordability
Addressing financial issues on macro levels: the availability of funding for health care in general and the level of pharmaceutical spending more specifically Addressing financial issues on micro levels: who pays and how much, thus the role of public and private payments for pharmaceuticals
Categories of indicators: type of health care system, total health expenditure, pharmaceutical expenditure Categories of indicators: private health expenditure, private pharmaceutical expenditure, co-payments, informal payments, medicine prices, VAT on medicines, policies addressing the poor
DELIVERY Rational selection and use Availability and accessibility
Addressing delivery on macro levels: which medicines, at least potentially, are made available, rational prescribing, dispensing and use of medicines in the health care system Addressing delivery on micro levels: the issue of supply meeting demand in terms of volume and reachability given distances and travel resources
Categories of indicators: INN prescribing, generic market, reference price system, prescription monitoring, treatment guidelines Categories of indicators: number of medicines, pharmacy density, OTC sale
  1. Note: A definition of all the indicators chosen is given in Table 5 which provides a comparative overview for the eight study countries.