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Table 7 Malignant tumors regressed on education, period, economic context, and change variables, for women and men (y-standardized Odds Ratios)

From: Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain

  Men Women
  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 0 Model 1 Model 2
  OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR  
Intercept 0.12 *** 0.08 *** 0.08 *** 0.15 *** 0.07 *** 0.08 ***
 (1) Individual variablesa             
  Education Level (ref. University Studies)             
   Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education    0.84 * 0.84 *    0.91   0.92  
   Lower Secondary    0.94   0.94     1.02   1.03  
   Upper Secondary    0.94   0.94     0.94   0.95  
   Higher technical education    0.99   1.00     0.93   0.93  
 (2) Period Variables             
  Period (ref. 2003)             
   2009    1.07   1.05     0.96   0.97  
   2011    1.09   0.93     0.87 * 0.85  
  Change in real GDP growth rate      0.99       1.00  
  Change in low work intensity indicator      1.02       1.01  
 (3) Context Variables             
  Mean real GDP growth rate      1.13       1.01  
  Mean low work intensity indicator      0.99       1.00  
Variance             
 Region 0.025 (0.031) 0.018 (0.025) 0.016 (0.024) 0.012 (0.013) 0.019 (0.026) 0.028 (0.036)
 Period 0.024 (0.030) 0.029 (0.032) 0.050 (0.041) 0.016 (0.017) 0.017 (0.021) 0.024 (0.022)
VPC             
 Regionb 0.7 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.4 % 0.6 % 0.8 %
 Periodc 0.7 % 0.9 % 1.5 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.7 %
VPC at higher levels (Region + Period) 1.5 % 1.4 % 2.0 % 0.8 % 1.1 % 1.6 %
DIC: 3795.571 3342.897 3343.505 7058.139 6372.18 6374.839
 Units: Region 17 17 17 17 17 17
 Units: Period 51 51 51 51 51 51
 Units: Individuals 21,257 21,049 21,049 26,181 25,918 25,918
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1
  2. Nmen = 21,260; Nwomen = 26,182
  3. aAll analyses controlled for age, work status, marital status, and household type at individual level
  4. bVariance Partition Coefficient at region level (σ2 region)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)
  5. cVariance Partition Coefficient at period level (σ2 period)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)
  6. The cross-level interaction effects between education and change variables (Models 3) were not reported in this table because there is no evidence about educational gradient and contextual/period effects in malignant tumors. In addition these cross-level interaction effects are not significant (See complete models in Additional file 2)