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Table 6 Myocardial infarction regressed on education, period, economic context, and change variables, for women and men (y-standardized Odds Ratios)

From: Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain

  Men Women
  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3b Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3a
  OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR  
Intercept 0.12 *** 0.04 *** 0.04 *** 0.04 *** 0.07 *** 0.03 *** 0.05 *** 0.04 ***
 (1) Individual variablesa                 
  Education Level (ref. University Studies)                 
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education    1.29 ** 1.28 ** 1.44 **    1.49 ** 1.40 * 1.74 **
   Lower Secondary    1.31 ** 1.31 ** 1.43 **    1.27   1.20   1.47 *
   Upper Secondary    1.16   1.15   1.28 +    1.10   1.06   1.29  
   Higher technical education    1.03   1.03   1.10     0.93   0.89   0.99  
 (2) Period Variables                 
  Period (ref. 2003)                 
   2009    1.02   1.04   1.11     1.10   0.75   0.69 +
   2011    0.88 + 1.01   1.12     0.94   0.63 + 0.55 *
  Change in real GDP growth rate      1.02   1.06       0.83 + 1.02  
  Change in low work intensity indicator      0.99   0.90 *      0.96   0.96  
 (3) Context Variables                 
  Mean real GDP growth rate      0.99   1.01       1.02   1.05  
  Mean low work intensity indicator      1.02   1.02       1.08 ** 1.08 ***
 (1) Education level* (2) Period Variables                 
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education* Change in real GDP growth rate                0.77 +
  Lower Secondary* Change in real GDP growth rate                0.75 *
  Upper Secondary* Change in real GDP growth rate                0.74 +
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education* Change in Low work intensity indicator        1.11 *         
  Lower Secondary* Change in Low work intensity indicator        1.12 *         
Variance                 
 Region 0.036 (0.035) 0.016 (0.021) 0.019 (0.024) 0.022 (0.031) 0.096 (0.128) 0.069 (0.088) 0.029 (0.043) 0.021 (0.033)
 Period 0.011 (0.015) 0.016 (0.017) 0.006 (0.009) 0.016 (0.023) 0.158 (0.121) 0.072 (0.106) 0.039 (0.039) 0.026 (0.032)
VPC                 
 Regionb 1.1 % 0.5 % 0.6 % 0.7 % 2.7 % 2.0 % 0.9 % 0.6 %
 Periodc 0.3 % 0.5 % 0.2 % 0.5 % 4.5 % 2.1 % 1.2 % 0.8 %
VPC at higher levels (Region + Period) 1.4 % 1.0 % 0.8 % 1.1 % 7.2 % 4.1 % 2.0 % 1.4 %
DIC: 4047.762 3448.372 3451.007 3450.421 1851.502 1679.942 1670.216 1673.497
 Units: Region 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
 Units: Period 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
 Units: Individuals 21,257 21,049 21,049 21,049 26,180 25,917 25,917 25,917
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1
  2. Nmen = 21,260; Nwomen = 26,182
  3. aAll analyses controlled for age, work status, marital status, and household type at individual level
  4. Model 3a controlled for cross-level interaction effects: change in real GDP growth rate* education level; Model 3b controlled for cross-level interaction effect: change in low work intensity indicator * education level (See complete models in Additional file 2)
  5. bVariance Partition Coefficient at region level (σ2 region)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)
  6. cVariance Partition Coefficient at period level (σ2 period)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)