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Table 5 Diabetes regressed on education, period, economic context and change variables, for women and men (y-standardized Odds Ratios)

From: Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain

  Men Women
  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3b
  OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR  
Intercept 0.21 *** 0.07 *** 0.07 *** 0.18 *** 0.08 *** 0.09 *** 0.09 ***
 (1) Individual variablesa               
  Education Level (ref. University Studies)               
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education    1.41 *** 1.40 ***    1.67 *** 1.70 *** 1.71 ***
   Lower Secondary    1.21 ** 1.20 **    1.35 *** 1.37 *** 1.38 ***
   Upper Secondary    1.19 * 1.19 **    1.28 ** 1.30 *** 1.26 **
   Higher technical education    1.04   1.04     1.26 * 1.26 * 1.25 *
 (2) Period Variables               
  Period (ref. 2006)               
  2009    1.01   1.04     1.05   0.94   0.93  
  2011    1.13 * 0.96     1.14 ** 0.99   1.00  
  Change in real GDP growth rate      1.01       0.95   0.94  
  Change in low work intensity indicator      1.04 **      0.99   0.97  
 (3) Context Variables               
  Mean real GDP growth rate      0.96       0.98   0.97  
  Mean low work intensity indicator      1.02 *      1.04 ** 1.04 **
 (1) Education level* (2) Period Variables               
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education* Change in Low work intensity indicator              1.03 +
Variance               
 Region 0.013 (0.013) 0.025 (0.023) 0.019 (0.019) 0.054 (0.030) 0.066 (0.048) 0.026 (0.028) 0.030 (0.028)
 Period 0.034 (0.019) 0.016 (0.020) 0.010 (0.012) 0.007 (0.007) 0.005 (0.007) 0.006 (0.007) 0.005 (0.007)
VPC               
 Regionb 0.4 % 0.8 % 0.6 % 1.6 % 2.0 % 0.8 % 0.9 %
 Periodc 1.0 % 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.2 %
VPC at higher levels (Region + Period) 1.4 % 1.2 % 0.9 % 1.8 % 2.1 % 1.0 % 1.1 %
DIC: 8762.19 7419.424 7412.147 8950.835 7963.463 7964.03 7960.65
 Units: Region 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
 Units: Period 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
 Units: Individuals 21,260 21,052 21,052 26,182 25,919 25,919 25,919
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1
  2. Nmen = 21,260; Nwomen = 26,182
  3. aAll analyses controlled for age, work status, marital status, and household type at individual level
  4. Model 3a controlled for cross-level interaction effects: change in real GDP growth rate* education level (Not shown); Model 3b controlled for cross-level interaction effect: change in low work intensity indicator* education level (Not shown for men). See complete models in Additional file 2
  5. bVariance Partition Coefficient at region level (σ2 region)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)
  6. cVariance Partition Coefficient at period level (σ2 period)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)