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Table 4 Depression regressed on education, period, economic context, and change variables, for women and men (y-standardized Odds Ratios)

From: Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain

  Men Women
  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3b Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3a Model 3b
  OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR   OR  
Intercept 0.18 *** 0.07 *** 0.08 *** 0.07 *** 0.31 *** 0.10 *** 0.11 *** 0.10 *** 0.10 ***
 (1) Individual variablesa                   
  Education Level (ref. University Studies)                   
   Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education    1.36 *** 1.35 *** 1.34 ***    1.62 *** 1.64 *** 1.61 *** 1.65 ***
   Lower Secondary    1.28 ** 1.27 *** 1.23 **    1.37 *** 1.38 *** 1.37 *** 1.40 ***
   Upper Secondary    1.20 * 1.20 * 1.18 *    1.14 * 1.16 * 1.14 * 1.17 *
   Higher technical education    1.16   1.16   1.16     1.08   1.09   1.09   1.11  
 (2) Period Variables                   
  Period (ref. 2003)                   
  2009    1.09   1.07   1.14     1.12 * 1.06   1.08   1.11  
  2011    1.13 + 1.11   1.24     1.23 *** 1.05   1.13   1.13  
  Change in real GDP growth rate      0.99   1.02       0.96   1.05   0.99  
  Change in low work intensity indicator      1.00   0.97       1.00   1.01   1.00  
 (3) Context Variables                   
  Mean real GDP growth rate      0.99   0.96       1.04   1.04   1.05  
  Mean low work intensity indicator      1.04 * 1.04 *      1.03   1.04 * 1.03 +
 (1) Education level* (2) Period Variables                   
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education* Change in real GDP growth rate                0.91 **   
  Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education* Change in Low work intensity indicator        1.02           1.03 +
  Lower Secondary* Change in Low work intensity indicator        1.05 *          1.00  
Variance                   
 Region 0.086 (0.056) 0.079 (0.055) 0.055 (0.045) 0.051 (0.043) 0.121 (0.079) 0.084 (0.050) 0.090 (0.059) 0.090 (0.062) 0.084 (0.058)
 Period 0.070 (0.038) 0.039 (0.033) 0.044 (0.035) 0.044 (0.041) 0.070 (0.037) 0.046 (0.027) 0.045 (0.024) 0.049 (0.025) 0.050 (0.032)
VPC                   
 Regionb 2.5 % 2.3 % 1.6 % 1.5 % 3.5 % 2.5 % 2.6 % 2.6 % 2.5 %
 Periodc 2.0 % 1.1 % 1.3 % 1.3 % 2.0 % 1.3 % 1.3 % 1.4 % 1.5 %
VPC at higher levels (Region + Period) 4.5 % 3.5 % 2.9 % 2.8 % 5.5 % 3.8 % 3.9 % 4.1 % 3.9 %
DIC: 6467.432 5819.895 5820.183 5819.675 13327.766 12053.531 12055.529 12051.674 12054.975
 Units: Region 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
 Units: Period 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
 Units: Individuals 19,986 19,918 19,918 19,918 21,459 21,403 21,403 21,403 21,403
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1
  2. Nmen = 19,987; Nwomen = 21,461
  3. aAll analyses controlled for age, work status, marital status, and household type at individual level
  4. Model 3a controlled for cross-level interaction effects: change in real GDP growth rate * education level (Not shown); Model 3b controlled for cross-level interaction effect: change in low work intensity indicator * education level (See complete models in Additional file 2)
  5. bVariance Partition Coefficient at region level (σ2 region)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)
  6. cVariance Partition Coefficient at period level (σ2 period)/ (σ2 region + σ2 period + 3.29)