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Table 3 Gender differences in depression, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and malignant tumors by education level and period

From: Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain

  Depression Diabetes Myocardial infarction Malignant tumors
2003/2006 M (%) W (%) sig. a M (%) W (%) sig.a M (%) W (%) sig.a M (%) W (%) sig.a
 Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education 4.2 11.4 *** 6.5 7.7   3.3 1.0 *** 2.4 3.7 **
 Lower Secondary 2.5 7.4 *** 2.8 3.6   1.3 0.4 ** 1.2 3.4 ***
 Upper Secondary 2.5 4.7 * 2.4 3.8 * 1.5 0.2 *** 1.1 2.6 **
 Higher technical education 1.9 4.2   2.1 2.6   1.0 0.1 * 0.6 1.9 *
 University Studies 1.5 3.4 ** 1.5 2.9 ** 1.2 0.3 ** 1.2 2.1 *
2009
 Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education 6.8 17.3 *** 9.5 7.9   3.6 1.4 *** 2.0 4.6 ***
 Lower Secondary 2.8 9.1 *** 2.9 3.3   1.5 0.5 *** 1.2 2.5 **
 Upper Secondary 2.8 7.2 *** 4.7 4.1   1.7 0.5 ** 2.1 2.1  
 Higher technical education 3.5 4.3   2.3 1.0   0.7 0.4   1.7 1.2  
 University Studies 2.3 4.3 ** 2.4 1.2 ** 1.3 0.1 *** 2.1 2.9  
2011
 Illiterate, no diploma, or primary education 8.2 24.9 *** 13.2 12.2   3.3 1.4 ** 2.3 3.7  
 Lower Secondary 5.1 11.9 *** 5.9 4.5 * 2.0 0.5 *** 2.0 3.0 *
 Upper Secondary 4.8 7.5 * 4.8 2.0 *** 1.4 0.3 * 2.0 3.4  
 Higher technical education 2.3 5.6 ** 3.2 3.0   1.1 0.0 * 2.3 2.2  
 University Studies 2.0 4.5 *** 3.7 1.5 *** 0.3 0.1   1.7 1.8  
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.5
  2. aDifference between men’s and women’s proportion tested via pairwise Chi2-test
  3. Source: Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2003–2004, 2006–2007, and 2011–2012, and European Health Survey in Spain (EHS-S) 2009