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Table 3 Probit model estimates of the determinants of CHE of urban elderly household in Nigeria

From: Investigating determinants of catastrophic health spending among poorly insured elderly households in urban Nigeria

Dependent Variable = 1, has CHE at 10 % of consumption expenditure, 0 otherwise
Log likelihood = −314.29794
Determinants Coefficient Standard error
Household living standards: ref (1: poorest)   
2nd quintile −0.222 (0.151)
3rd quintile −0.549*** (0.162)
4th quintile −0.754*** (0.187)
Household size −0.074*** (0.018)
Female household head (ref: male) −1.407** (0.520)
Age_fem 0.023** (0.008)
Age of household head 0.000 (0.021)
Education of household head (ref: no education)   
Household head is educated at least to primary education 0.349* (0.143)
Proportion of households that are self employed −0.238 (0.169)
Proportion of households with >1 elderly member 0.222 (0.116)
Proportion of households using private health facilities 0.027 (0.213)
Bednet use (ref: household uses untreated net)   
Treated bednet use < 6 months 0.450 (0.266)
Treated bednet use > 6 months 0.708* (0.311)
No bednet 0.300 (0.250)
At least one member has been hospitalised −0.131 (0.330)
At least one member has a self-care difficulty −0.178 (0.290)
Proportion of households without NHIS coverage 0.108 (0.172)
Proportion of households with informal financing −0.646*** (0.124)
Constant −0.782 (0.699)
N 1140  
LR (chi2) 80.611  
Prob > chi2 0.0000  
  1. Our model includes agesquared. We excluded region from the estimation as it is insignificant in the model. We introduce an interaction term “age_fem” to capture any effects that gender and increasing age has on CHE. Log likelihood converged on the 4th iteration
  2. NGHPS data, 2010 (urban elderly households sample)
  3. Standard errors in parentheses. Significance levels: *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001