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Table 4 Common barriers to specialist outpatient care by chronic condition and number of corresponding studies

From: A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries?

Barrier Reported in relation to: Number of studies
CAN AST DEP DIA ISC COP ART OST STR Total # Oncology only (n = 53) Other disease (n = 21)
Acceptability
 Decisional involvement    7 9 3
 Healthcare disparity by  patient demographics 9 22 11
 Health communication    7 16 4
 Professional-patient relations      5 12 1
Accessibility
 Parking    7 6 1
 Professional practice location    7 2 1
 Transport    7 3 1
Accommodation
 Appointments and scheduling    7 2 1
 Continuity of care   8 4 3
 Out of hours care    7 2 3
 Provider contact    7 1 2
 Wait times    7 6 1
Affordability
 General affordability   8 2 2
 Health insurance   8 5 3
 Medical fees    7 2 2
 Prescription fees    7 0 3
Availability
 Delays    7 3 2
 Service availability    7 4 1
Optimal care
 Consumer information    7 21 3
 Medical errors    7 1 1
 Patient care team, coordination    7 4 3
 Self care    7 3 1
 Service amenities    7 8 1
  1. CAN Cancer, AST Asthma, DEP Depression, DIA Diabetes, ISC Ischaemic heart disease, COP Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, ART Arthritis, OST Osteoporosis, STR Stroke