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Table 2 Overview of social fields with implications for household food security and child nutrition

From: The social context of severe child malnutrition: a qualitative household case study from a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo

Case no. Children’s nutritional status Social fields
Household Gbisa Village Local NGO
Households with malnourished children
1 Marasmus Nuclear family Used male gbisa for land clearing Rights to plots for maize and cassava cultivation. Marasmic child treated at the hospital
No use of female gbisa Land redistributed by village chief No access to safe water
2 Marasmus Nuclear family No use of gbisa No agricultural land Marasmic child treated at the hospital
No access to safe water
3 Kwashiorkor Medium sized – extended household No use of gbisa Rights to agricultural land for maize, cassava and groundnut cultivation Kwashiorkor child treated at the hospital
No access to safe water
4 Kwashiorkor Large extended household – three generations No use of gbisa Rights to several plots for maize, cassava and groundnut cultivation Kwashiorkor child treated at the hospital
No access to safe water
5 Well-nourished Medium sized monogamous household Use of male and female gbisa for agricultural activities Usufruct rights to plots for maize, cassava and groundnut cultivation Use of health centre services including counselling for infants and toddlers
Access to safe water provided by CDI-Bwamanda
6 Well-nourished Large polygamous household – three generations Use of male and female gbisa for agricultural activities Use of “groundnut” gbisa for capital accumulation investment in bicycle Usufruct rights to several plots for maize, cassava, groundnut and palm oil cultivation Use of health centre services including counselling for infants and toddlers
Access to safe water provided by CDI-Bwamanda
7 Well-nourished Large polygamous household Use of gbisa for capital accumulation – investment in cattle Usufruct rights to several plots for maize, cassava, palm oil cultivation and growing fruits Use of health centre services including counselling for infants and toddlers
Benefit from project combatting sleeping sickness
Benefitted from hygiene project
No access to safe water supply, but involved in planning drilling of new deep water well to be provided by CDI-Bwamanda
8 Well-nourished Large polygamous household No use of gbisa Usufruct rights to several plots for maize, cassava, beans and palm oil cultivation Use of health centre services including counselling for infants and toddlers
Employ cash labourers and school children as an alternative to gbisa
Took advantage of CDI-Bwamanda facilitating transport and sale of maize to Kinshasa
Benefitted from project combatting sleeping sickness
Benefitted from hygiene project
Access to safe water supply provided by CDI-Bwamanda