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Table 4 Descriptive statistics for sampled households

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities

Variables No. of observations Description Mean (Standard deviation)
Round 9447 Round 4 0.173
Round 5 0.263 (0.44)
Round 6 0.275 (0.45)
Round 7 0.289 (0.45)
Slum 9447 Viwandani 0.221
Korogocho 0.219 (0.41)
Dandora 0.087 (0.28)
Mukuru 0.219 (0.41)
Obunga 0.114 (0.32)
Nyalenda 0.141 (0.35)
Income group 9447 Lower third income group = 1 0.285
Middle third income group = 1 0.290 (0.45)
Top third income group = 1 0.426 (0.49)
Expenditure group 9447 Lower third spending group = 1 0.332
Middle third spending group = 1 0.333 (0.47)
Top third spending group = 1 0.335 (0.47)
Main Source of livelihood 9431 Other1 = 1 0.617
If has formal labor (livelihood1) = 1 0.234 (0.42)
If has own business (livelihood2) = 1 0.149 (0.36)
Gender of main bread winner 9055 Male = 1 0.402 (0.40)
Female = 0 0.598
Working adults in household 9431 More than one working adult = 1 0.238 (0.42)
One working adult = 0 0.763
Children under 5 years of age 9430 Household has at least one child under 5 = 1 0.614 (0.49)
Otherwise = 0 0.386
Age of main income earner 9447 Age < = 35 0.646
35 < Age < =55 0.268 (0.44)
Age > 55 0.086 (0.28)
Duration of stay in the slum (years) 9353 Number of years household has stayed their current village/slum 7.88 (9.17)
Use of a social safety net by member of household 9431 Enrolled =1 0.281 (0.45)
Otherwise = 0 0.719
Shocks 9431 If household experienced shock2 = 1 0.166 (0.37)
Otherwise =0 0.834
Type of illness 9339 If suffering from diarrhea = 1; 0.064 (0.25)
If suffering from fever =1; 0.184 (0.39)
If suffering from cough = 1; 0.150 (0.36)
If suffering from headache = 1; 0.151 (0.36)
If vomiting = 1; 0.056 (0.23)
If has convulsions = 1; 0.005 (0.07)
If has difficulty breathing = 1; 0.035 (0.18)
If has measles = 1; 0.008 (0.09)
If has some injury = 1; 0.016 (0.13)
If suffering from other3 = 1 Missing one
Care sought for illness 9334 No ill person, and no care sought = 1 0.516
Ill person and no care sought = 1 0.053 (0.22)
Ill person and care sought = 1 0.432 (0.50)
Place care was sought 9339 Care sought in public hospital =1 0.056 (0.23)
Care sought in public clinic =1 0.067 (0.25)
Care sought in private hospital = 1 0.019 (0.14)
Care sought in private clinic = 1 0.038 (0.19)
Care sought in mission hospital = 1 0.004 (0.06)
Care sought in mission clinic = 1 0.17 (0.13)
Care sought in other4 = 1 Missing one here
  1. Notes: 1Other = do not have formal employment or own business, but engage for example in petty trading, casual labor or unemployed. 2Shock events include: fire, floods, mugging, burglary, eviction, property destruction or rape. 3Suffering from other type of illness. 4Sought other type of care or from other places for example bought over the counter drugs, from chemist, or visited an herbalist. For all categories, the minimum = 0 and the maximum = 1.